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70 Cards in this Set

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What is Gustation and what type of receptors does it rely on
Gustation is the sense of taste and it relies on chemoreceptors.
How many types of taste receptors do we have and what type of cells are they
We have four types of taste buds, Sweet(glucose), Salty(sodium), Bitter (basic), and sour(acidic) specialized epithelial cells. Taste transported by cranial nerve.
What is olfaction and what type of receptors does it use and how?
Smell. Receptors in roof of nasal cavity. Detect chemicals that dissolve in mucus covering the nasal membrane. Nerves project into olfactory bulbs of brain. Near memory center.
What are the two structures of the outer ear
auricle/pinna(exterior)
external auditory canal
Where is the division between the inner and outer ear?
at the tampanic membrane or ear drum
What are the ossicles and what are their functions
the bones of the middle ear.
malleus(hammer)is atached to the tympanic membrane
Stapes(stirrup) is attached to the oval window.
Incus(anvil)connects the two they help amplify sound waves
What are the structures of the inner ear
cochlea
semicircular canals
utricle
saccule
What inner ear structures are important for balance
semicircular canal, utricle, and saccula
Where is the round window and what is its function
A membrane covered hole in the cochlea near the oval window that releases exess pressure
What is the eustachian tube and what is its function
also auditory tube. a passageway from the back of the throat to the middle ear that equalizes pressure on both sides of the ear drum
Describe the mechanism of hearing
sound eners the external ear into auditory canal causing ear drum to vibrate. Signal to malleus to incus to stapes to ovel window. Pressure wave propagates in perilymph/endolump fluids of the cochlea. Vibration to basilar membrane which contains auditory receptors in cochlea(hair cells).
What happens when sound reaches the hair cells of the cochlea
Cilia projecting from the apical(top) opposite of basilar membrane contact the tectorial membrane. Hair dragged across tectorial membrane and and opens ion channels and stimulates neurotransmitter exocitosis. Bipolar auditory afferent neorons stimulated and relay to the brain.
What are the components of the organ of Corti
basilar membrane, hair cells, tectorial membrane in the cochlea. Primary site where auditory stimuli are detected.
Overview the path of sound ways
sound wave, auricle, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, malleus, incus,stapes, oval window, perilymph,endolymph, basilar membrane, auditory hair cells/tectorial membrane, neurotransmitters stimulate bipolar auditory neurons, brain, perception
How do we recognize pitch
auditory neurons fire at different frequencies, low at apex of cochlear duct(far from oval window) high at oval window
How is loudness detected
by the amplitude of vibrations. Larger vibrations cause more frequent action potentials
What are the semicircular canals and what function do they perform
three tubules filled with endolymph. They have hair cells that detect rotational acceleration in the head. the send info via afferent neurons that connect to the pons and cerrebellum. other balance sections are the utricle and saccule.
Describe the functios of the cornea
Light enters the cornea which is a clear portion in the front of the eye. the cornea refracts light as it enters because it has a high refractive index
What is the sclera
the white of the eye
What is the choroid
the pigment that absorbs excess light that hits the eye
What is the retina
the surface in which light is focused
Where is the anterior chamber and what is in it
it is just behind the cornea and it contais aqueous humor
What is the iris
it is at the back of the anteriro chamber and contains an opening called the pupil. It is the colored part of the eye and regulates pupil diameter
What is the posterior chamber
it is a chamber containing humor that contains a lense within its back section.
What is the goal of the lens
to beam light directy focused on the retina whci is controlled by the ciliary muscle.
What is the vitreous chamber
chamber containing humor that is behind the lens
What is the function of the retina
it contains rods and cones which are responsible for detecting light or photoreceptors
What type of neurons do rods and cones synapse at
bipolar cells which contain 1 axon and 1 dendrite. They in turn synapse with ganglion nerves which are the optic nerve which send info to the occipital lobe of the brain.
How many sets of nerves does light info have to travel through to hit rods and cones
2 but they are very thin so light passes through easily
What takes place at the optic disk
a blind spot in the retina because of the axons from gaglion cells converge there
What takes place at the macula
At the center of the macula the fovea exists which is the focal pt of the eye which contains only cone type receptors.
What is retinal and where is it derrived from
it is the protein that can absorb light and it is derived from vitamin A
What conversion takes place when retinal absorbs light
a cis bond turns into a trans bond
What are the differences in vision between rods and cones
rods are more sensitive and are responsible for night vision and black and white.
Cones are responsibile for color and high acuity vision.
What types of cones are necesairy for color vision
red, green and blue absorbing light
What is emmetropia
Normal vision
What is myopia
nearsightedness which is a result from light being focused in front of the retina. It can be fixed by using a concave diverging lens
What is hyperopia
it is farsightedness which is a result from light focusing past the retina. Corrected from a convex or diverging lens
What is presbyopia
the inability to focus which is from a loss of flexability in the lens
summarize vision
receptor, type, organ, stimulus
rods/cones,electromagnetic, retina, light
Summarized hearing
receptor, type, organ, stimulus
auditory hair cells, mechanoreceptors, organ of Corti, vibration
summarize olfaction
receptor, type, organ, stimulus
olfactory nerve endings, chemoreceptors, individual nearuons in nasal cavity, chemicals airborn
summarize tast
receptor, type, organ, stimulus
taste cells, chemoreceptors, taste buds, food chemicals
summarize touch
receptor, type, organ, stimulus
Pacinian corpuscules, mechanoreceptors,pressure
Free nerve endings, nociceptor skin pain
Temp-thermo-temperature
Summarize interoception
receptor, type, organ, stimulus
aortic arch baroreceptors, baroreceptor, aortic arch,blood pressure

pH receptors, chemo, aortic arch/medulla oblongata, ph
What is the main purpose of the endocrine system
to regulate physiology especially metabolism over periods of days and hours. this happens through hormone secretion
What is a hormone and what types of glands are they secreted from
Endocrine secretions, molecule that is secreted into the bloodstream by endocrine gland. A ductless gland that secrets hormones into capillaries.
What is an exocrine gland
a gland that secretes molecules via ducts to the gi system or the outside world
What is a hormone receptor
a protein that possesses a ligand specific binding site which causes a modified activity when bound to ligand
What is autocrine activity and give an example
cells that are modified by the hormones they secrete. T cells release interleukin 2 which binds to the receptors on the same T cells to increase activity.
What are some hydrophilic hormones
peptide and amino acid derivitives that bind to cell exterior receptors
What are some hydrophobic hormones
steroid hormones that bind to cell interior receptors
Where are peptide hormones synthesized
in the rough ER and are modified in the golgi apparatus
Where are peptide hormones stored
in vessicles untill they are needed and released by exocytosis
What is the key to second messenger cascades
signal amplification which allows a few receptors to change multiple activities
What are key features to peptide hormone activity
they have rapid effects and short durrations
What are steriod hormones synthesized from
from cholesterol in the smooth ER. They are not stored but diffuesed as soon as they are made
How do steroids travel through the blood stream
on proteins in the plasma such as albumin through hydrophobic forces
Describe the effect of steroid hormones
diffuses through the plasma membrane, combines with receptor in cytoplasm, transported into the nucleus, regulates transcription. Slow effect but long lasting.
What are tropic hormones
hormones that regulated other hormones
What portion of the brain controls the endocrine system
the hypothalamus does by releasing tropic hormones. Controls the function of the antior pituitary gland
What is the hypothalamic-pituitary control axis
The hypothalamus secretes hormones into a specialized miniature circulatory system that provides the antierior pituitary with information known as the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system
Define portal system
two beds of capillaries seperated by two sets of veins
what are the two halves of the pituitary gland called
anterior(adenohypophysis)
posterior(neurohypophysis)
What is the difference between the anterior and posterior pituitary gland
anterior is a normal endocrine gland that is controlled by the hypothalamic releasing factors. The posterior is composed of axons from the hypothalamus which are neuroendocrine cells.(neurons that release hormones into the blood stream
What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary
ADH or vasopressin(kidney water retention)
oxytocin: causes milk let down for nursing and well as uterine contraction for labor(all made by soma in hypothalamus)
Describe the effect of steroid hormones
diffuses through the plasma membrane, combines with receptor in cytoplasm, transported into the nucleus, regulates transcription. Slow effect but long lasting.
What are tropic hormones
hormones that regulated other hormones
What portion of the brain controls the endocrine system
the hypothalamus does by releasing tropic hormones. Controls the function of the antior pituitary gland
What is the hypothalamic-pituitary control axis
The hypothalamus secretes hormones into a specialized miniature circulatory system that provides the antierior pituitary with information known as the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system