Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/80

Click to flip

80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
providing a nurturing environment that fosters healthy attitudes about problem-solving and motivates children toward self-reliance.
GUIDANCE
Right to safety
o Right to their possessions
o Right to fairness
o Right to avoid unnecessary discomfort
,Right of respect as a human being
RIGHTS OF CHILDREN
Erikson's Theory: Infants
Trust vs. Mistrust
Erikson's Theory: Toddlers
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Piaget's THeory: Infants
Sensorimotor
a strong affectional tie between an infant & his/her caregiver. It is developed when infants who are responded to consistently develop an emotional bond w/caregivers
Attachment
caregiver is seen as a security base and will explore strange environments; may protest when caregiver leaves but easily comforted upon return
SECURE ATTACHMENT
less able to use caregiver as secure base; clings to parents or be unwilling to explore environment; not readily comforted upon separation
INSECURE ATTACHMENT
blurry @ birth; faces recognized by 4 mos.
· Guidance: Use eye contact to establish communication
INFANT PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT (VISION)
attuned to human speech
· Guidance: talk to infants often and use your voice to help your child find you.
PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT (HEARING)
both functioning at birth
· Guidance: be sensitive to child’s likes and dislikes
PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT (SMELL AND TASTE)
sensitive to pressure, pain, heat/cold
· Guidance: swaddling and holding soothes the child
PERCEPT. DEVELOPMENT (TOUCH)
Acquisition of language
Begin symbolic behavior; pretend play
Egocentric point of view
Appearance is reality
PIAGET'S PREOPERATIONAL
Inadequate Prenatal Care
Isolation
Substandard Child Care (day cares, etc.)
Poverty
Lack of attention
KEY PROBLEMS THAT PUT CHILD AT RISK
allow “all by myself”; establish small set of logical limits; allow plenty of social experiences
INITIATIVE VS. GUILT GUIDANCE NEEDS
emphasis on the role of the environment in shaping behavior
BEHAVIORISM (B.F. SKINNER)
a stimulus that increases the likelihood of repeated behavior
REINFORCER
an unpleasant action designed to make behavior less likely to occur.
PUNISHMENT
Children model their behavior after someone they perceive as similar to themselves & being nurturing and helpful
BANDURA'S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
a reminder to the child before the behavior occurs
CUEING
non-reinforcement to remove the trivial, small annoyances from daily interactions
IGNORING
focus on one problem and ignore less bothersome behaviors
TARGET ONE BEHAVIOR
reinforcement of small steps towards a desired behavior
·
SHAPING
application of a model as an example to be observed and imitated
MODELING
Views the child as developing w/in a complex system of relationships (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem)
BRONFENBRENNER'S ECOLOGICAL THEORY
By this age, children understand conservation; they can handle several ideas all at one time. They are less egocentric and can apply some logical thinking to a situation
INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY/CONCRETE OPERATIONS (school-aged children)
Identity vs. Identity Confusion/Piaget’s Formal Operations
ADOLESCENTS
Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive
BAUMRIND'S PARENTING STYLES
Adolescents are capable of true abstract and symbolic thought processes, use of hypothetical-deductive reasoning and logic.
PIAGET'S FORMAL OPERATIONAL THEORY
based on process of individuation; gradual, progressive separation from one’s parents and taking responsibility for oneself
AUTONOMY
PERSONAL FABLE AND IMAGINARY AUDIENCE
ELKIND'S ADOLESCENT EGOCENTRISM
adolescent assumption that his/her experiences are unique
PERSONAL FABLE
heightened self-consciousness that leads to the belief that his/her behavior is the focus of everyone’s attention
IMAGINARY AUDIENCE
evidence of chronic and compulsive patterns of inappropriate or self-destructive behavior
DYSFUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR
appropriate actions that serve a productive or positive function in a child’s life
FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR
focuses on the effect the child’s behavior has on the adult. Child’s actions are evaluated according to the impact on things the adult cares about, as well as adults’ emotional state and mood.
ADULT-CENTERED BEHAVIOR
focuses on the ability level, motives, and long-term well-being of the child in evaluating behavior. If an action is wrong, it is b/c it infringes on the rights of others or it is not safe—not because the action is a bother to the adult
CHILD-CENTERED BEHAVIOR
Pairing an unconditioned stimuli with a naturally occurring stimulus-response connection
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Occurs when children/babies are caught in a flow of events that are unpredictable and clearly outside their control
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
the distress children show when they cry on separation form a parent or primary caregiver
SEPARATION ANXIETY
In order to experience this, the child must be able to distinguish familiar from unfamiliar faces (usually around 6-7 mos.)
STRANGER ANXIETY
one's idea of image of oneself
SELF-CONCEPT
one's image of oneself includes a sense of being worthwhile and valuable
SELF-ESTEENM
Perfectionism, the need to always be in control, people pleasing, self-doubt
STRESS TRAPS
Preconventional Morality, Conventional, and Postconventional Morality
KOHLBERG'S MORAL DEVELOPMENT
obeying the rules to avoid punishment, obeying the rules to satisfy personal needs
PRECONVENTIONAL MORALITY
motivated to gain approval and affection from others
duty to uphold rules and law for their own sake (the “law and order” stage)
CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
Individual rights and needs of majority are emphasized; Universal ethical principle, morality based on personal decision of conscience
POSTCONVENTIONAL MORALITY
humans’ main desire is to belong and all behavior is purposive
DREIKURS'S SOCIAL DISCIPLINE THEORY
Attention, Power, REvenge, Inadequacy
THE FOUR GOALS OF MISBEHAVIOR
THREE REASONS FOR MISBEHAVIOR (OTHER THAN THE FOUR GOALS)
Children feel anger and contempt for authority rather than respect and affection; They feel like there are too many expectations for them to live up to; Rules are just hollow threats that are not consistent
Asking children to look at how their behavior affects others
INDUCTIVE GUIDANCE
Define the boundarirs of behavior and set up a framework in which everyone knows the rules
SETTING LIMITS
2 reasons for setting limits
1. PREVENT INJURIES 2. PREVCENT DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY
Honors the child's intent, but changes the expression or form of the activity
REDIRECTION
Designed to stop the behavior by focusing the child's attention on something else
DISTRACTION
a direct results of the child's own actions and a ntural outcome of the behavior
NATURAL CONSEQUENCE
consequences that need adult intervention; should be the logical outcome of the child's behavior; NOT a punishment
LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES
When used in a supportive way, children can feel empowered an dconfident in their ability to control their own behavior
TIME-OUT
Cons of time-out
DOES NOT TEACH NEW BEHAVIOR; NO REAL LEARNING TAKES PLACE; CAN LEAVE CHILD WITH A SENSE OF REJECTION
Focuses on the result, not the effort; can lead to dependency on adults to tell them what is good or bad
PRAISE
can cause children to focus on external rather than intrinsic rewards
PRAISE
Very global--not specific
PRAISE
specific and avoids labeling or interpreting
ENCOURAGEMENT
does not set children up for failure
ENCOURAGEMENT
Avoids comparison or competition, by using the child's prior accomplishments as a context
ENCOURAGEMENT
focuses on improvement of process rather than evaluation of finished product
ENCOURAGEMENT
Indirect way to influence behavior
NONVERBAL GUIDANCE
Examples of nonverbal guidance
BODY LANGUAGE; GLANCES AND LOOKS; PHYSICAL PRESENCE; TOUCH
asking open-ended questions and providing choices are examples of.....
GUIDING INDIRECTLY WITH WORDS
The 10 Steps of Guidance practices that include Ignoring, Listening, Brainstorming, and acting as a reporter is called...
THE GUIDANCE CONTINUUM
behavior that benefits others, w/o any expected reward for the self
PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
working w/others toward a common goal
COOPERATION
the capacity fo understand another's emotional state
EMPATHY
behaving in a way that benefits others w/o personal gain
ALTRUISM
the environment that is related to time
TEMPORAL ENVIRONMENT
Teacher/Child ratio for infants
ONE TEACHER FOR EVERY 3 CHILDREN
RATIO for Toddlers
1 TEACHER FOR EVERY 5 TODDLERS
PRESCHOOLERS
1 TEACHER FOR EVERY 8-10 CHILDREN
SCHOOL-AGED RATIO
1 for every 12-15