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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
most common cause of fetal hydronephrosis is what?
inadequate recanalization of the uretopelvic junction
the hormal dysregulation of PCOS is characterized by?
progesterone deficiency, LH and Estrogen levels elevated and low FSH levels…
what is ligated during radical hysterectomy?
the cardinal/transverse cervical ligament which carries the uterine artery…
the nerves, arteries, veins and lymphatic supplying the ovary are are dileverd via?
Via the suspensory ligament
painful ulcer on the penis in conjunction with regional lymph node swelling is what?
chancroid caused by H. Ducreyei
injusry to the anterior urethra is the most common type of traumatic injury there and occurs after?
falling on a crossbar or bike bar and is called a saddle injury
injury to the posterior urethra occurs in situations of?
…pelvic fracture…
the mesonephric (wolfian ducts) form what in females?
gardeners ducts
the surgeon can palpate a ureter immediately lateral to what?
internal iliac artery
indirect inguinal hernias occur due to what?
failure of the processes vaginalis to obliterate allowing abdominal contents to enter the deep inguinal ring and exits the superficial inguinal ring (indirerct inguinal hernias are much more common than direct)…
indirect inguinal hernias occur due to what?
failure of the processes vaginalis to obliterate allowing abdominal contents to enter the deep inguinal ring and exits the superficial inguinal ring (indirerct inguinal hernias are much more common than direct)…
what happens if testicles are undescended?
the the seminiferous tubules atrophy and become hyalinized because they are temperature sensitive and therefore inhibin is not secreted so FSH levels are increased, on the other hand the leydig cells of the testicles are not temperature sensisitive and still fxn normally so therefore testosterone and LH production is normal leading to normal secondary sex characteristics…
PCNs are structural analogs of?
…D-ALA-D-ALA…
the cremasteric fascia arrises from what?
the internal oblique…
Fibrous tissue overlying the corpus spongiosum and cavernosum is what?
the tunica albugenia
Most common type of CAH?
21hydroxylase deficiency resulting in salt wasting HTN ambiguous genitalia…
Aromatase deficiency manifests early in life with what?
high androgen levels, low estrogen levels and ambiguous genitalia, the mothers of these babies have hirsuitism because the lack of aromatase causes increases testosterone, later on in life the ladies have tall stature because estrogen is required for epiphseal fusion…
undervirilization of males and HTN are the clinical manifestations of?
17 OHase deficiency resulting in decreased androgens and cortisol but increased mineralocorticoids
In females the labioscrotal folds for the?
labia majora
Blood supply to a donor kidney typically placed in the right iliac foss is via anastomosing?
the donor renal artery with the patients external iliac artery
Hawthorne effect
Tendency of study population to affect a study because they know they are being looked at?
Pygmilan effect is?
a researches belief that what is being study is efficacious and therefore can contribute to its outcome
Yolk sac is aka? vitelline duct and incomplet obliteration is a meckels…
vitelline duct
The urachus is a remnant of what?
the allantois and failure of this to obliterate can cause a patent urachus connecting the bladder to the belly button
The allantois originally connects what?
…the urogenital sinus with the yolk sac…
Are any villi present in gestational choriocarcinoma?
no
The most common site of mets of choriocarcinoma which rapidly invades the uterine wall is what?
lungs
Bulky intrauterine mass that is soft and appears white and yellow with areas of hemorhhage and necrosis…
On macroscopic eval gestational choriocarcinomas appear as what?
Leydig cells are analogous to what in women?
theca interna
In the ovary androgens and progesterones are made
theca interna
the conversion of adrogen to estrogen is enhanced by what gonadotroph?
fsh enhances aromatase in the AG granulose cells
…TDF – on the SRY…
Primitive gonads develop from the the genital ridges and what makes people go the Y route?
the sertoli cells secreting MIF
what is responsible for involution of the paramesonephric ducts (mullerian)?
the prescenec of an externally male genitalia in a genetically femal patient is most often due to?
Androgen excess by CAH 21/11 def…
Androgen excess by CAH 21/11 def…
the prescenec of an externally male genitalia in a genetically femal patient is most often due to?
Kallmans syndrome occurs due to?
diminished synthesis of gonadotrophic hormones in the Anterior pituitary presenting with primary amenorrhea, no secondary sex characteristic and an olfactory duct malfunction
when are peak progesterone levels seen?
mid luteal (LPS) phase…
…diffuse polypoid pattern and often in multiple sites
how does the endometrial cancer grow?
Another name for uterine fibroids?
…Leiomyoma
LiFiCa
lieomyoma-fibroids-calcified…
simple and columnar..
fallopian tube epithelium is what?
Ovarian epithelium is what?
…simple cuboidal…
Increased FSH secretion occurs in klinFFFelters but more commnly is associated with what?
postmenopause
This is the description of a cmplete mole
No fetal features and composed of large disorganized edematous chorionic villi that appear grossly as clusters of edematous structures, furthermore the genotype is XX entirely from the male sperm fertilizing and dividing. What is this?
A partial mole shows formation of ?
some fetal structures and is the result of an ovum that had a train run on it hence the triploidy
IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY estrogen and progesterone are made by what?
…the corpus luteum
What prevents prolactin from accomplishing lactogenesis during pregnancy?
high levels of progesterone from the placenta and estrogen from the fetal adrenal gland…
HCG rises to its highest levels at week nine of pregnancy and is made by?
embryonic syncitiotrophoblasts
What is the purpose of HCG?
…HCG keeps the corpus luteum alive until the placenta can take on the responsibility of making progesterone and estrogen (also made in the fetal adrenal gland)…
What are LH levels like during pregnancy?
…low because of negative feedback by progesterone…
detection bias occurs when?
…more information is attempted to be obtained from an exposure group than from the control group
…more information is attempted to be obtained from an exposure group than from the control group
detection bias occurs when?
Whaen does the morula or two – eight celled zygote travel through the isthmus of the oviduct?
…3-4 post ovulation…
the morula forms what?
a blastocyst which remains freel floating in the uterine cavity around 5-6 days…
around 6 days and HCG cannot be detected usually iuntil around 8-11 days
when does implantation occur?
how is secondary amenorrhea evaluated?
…assay of FSH and LH as well as a progesterone challenege for which bleeding after a progesterone withdrawal test is indicative that the endo was primed by estrogen and the hypopit axis is functioning normally…
…endometriosis and an increased level of prostaglandin F
Dymenorrhea (excessive pain) commonly associated with?
… bleeding that occurs at irregular intervals…
Metrorrhagia is what?
Bleeding that occurs at irregular intervals is metorrhagia and is commonly associated with?
cervical carx and cervical polyps…
Oogonia ar present before completion of meiosis ?
…46 (2n)…
…46 (2n)…
Oogonia ar present before completion of meiosis ?
primary Oocytes arrested in prophase I are what?
…4N 46…
…4N 46…
primary Oocytes arrested in prophase I are what?
secondary Oocytes have completed meiosis 1 and are?
…23 2N
Prolactin does what to GnRH?
…inhibits it…
MCC of spontaneous nipple discharge?
…intraducatal papilloma…
…lost to follow up bias…
selection bias is what kind of bias
call-exner bodies are what?
…small follicular like structures filled with eosinophillic secretions seen in granulose tumors
woman with endometrial hyperplasia and an adnexal mass?
granulose cell tumor with the call exner bodies that produces estrogen (remember aromatase is inside the friggin grnauloasa cells)…
Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas are tumors of?
…the ovarian epithelium that may progress to pseudomyxoma peritonei
…uniformly enlarged endometrium…
Phusical exam of somepne with adenomyosis typically reveals a?
…exposure of people with a disease and exposure without…
A case control study is used to compare?
abnormal proliferations of cytotrophoblasts and syncitiotrophoblasts…
choriocarcinomas
ovary arterial supply is via the abdominal aorta vie the ovarian arteries (suspensory lig) and the uterine arteries (transverse cardinal lig) derived from?
uterine arteries come from the internal iliac
Lymphatic drainage of the ovaries is via the?
paraaorticlymph nodes (this is retroperitoneal)
HNPCC aka Lynch syndrome have what?
increased risk of ovarian cancer…
Large ovarian cysts that may be Dxed by palapation?
…follicular cysts…
Theca lutein ovarian cysts are caused by?
elevation of HCG produced by the placenta during preg…
bilateral ovarian elnalrgement, cortical fibrosis and multiple follicular cysts?
…PCOS…
Righ sided hydronephrosis in a female may indicate what?
…thrombosis of the right ovarian vein that constricts the ureter beacues the vein crosses the ureter to enter the IVC
…thrombosis of the right ovarian vein that constricts the ureter beacues the vein crosses the ureter to enter the IVC
Righ sided hydronephrosis in a female may indicate what?
Vein crosses the ureter to enter IVC?
Ovarian vein aand therefore may cause right sided Hydronephrosis…
Mifepristone is an abortifactant that works by what moa?
anti progesterone
Femoral hernias are lateral to?
…the pubic tubercle and lacunar ligament while medial to the femoral vein…
If the inferior epigastriv vessels are medial to a hernia then what type is it?
…the most common an indirect…
the deep inguinal ring is the opening of what?
…transversalis fascia and the site of protrusion of an indirect hernia…
Forms the posterior wall of the inguinal canal and is what?
…the transversalis fascia – posterior wall of the canal and the opening of the deep inguinal ring the site of protrusion
How does the Na-Cyanide Nitroprusside test diagnose cystinuria?
…Cyanide converts cystine in the urine to cystiene and nitroprusside can bind the sufla groups on cystein turing the urine purple…
treament of cysteinuria is what?
…alkanization and hydration…
Cystenuria is a defect in the renal proximal tubules also involved in the reabsorption of?
ornithin, arginine and lysine
Hexagonal crystals on urinalysis are pathogononic for?
cystienura…
Primarily released in the LH – Secretory phase of the menstrual cycle?
• …Progesterone (LPS) – Luteinizing progesterone secretory phase?
…endometrial cells to grow and differentiate in to stromal and dicidual cells…
Progesterone in the LPS is required for what?
What are the only type of stone that are radiolucent (i.e. not fucking seen)?
…uric acid stones…
Coffin lids?
…MAP – struvite…
DIbasi amono acids that share a common transport systrem in the kidney and intestine
ornithine lysine, argenin and cystine
Commonly found in patients with endometriosis on vaginal exam?
…retroversion of the uterus and nodularity of the uteral sacral ligaments…
the left renal vein drains what?
the adrenal and the gonads in contrasts to the right renal vein which just drains the adrenals…
Finasteride is what?
…5-alpha-reductase inhibitor…
Antimuscarinic agent given for urge incontinence?…\
…Oxybutinin…
…Oxybutinin…
Antimuscarinic agent given for urge incontinence?…\
Increased LH stimulates what?
…secretion and synthesis of androgens by the ovarian theca cells
The theca cells respond to what?
…LH
ow does clomiphene citrates work in the Tx of infertility of PCOS?
Clomiphene resembles estrogen (which is at at high levels in PCOS) and binds antagonistically to the estrogen reseptors in the hypothalamus pituitary thereby blocking the negative feedback estrogen has at high levels and allowing secretion of Gonadotrophins in the face of elevated estrogen levels causing ovulation
Androgene antagonists for the Tx of Hirsuitism in females?
…Cyproterone
…Cyproterone
Androgene antagonists for the Tx of Hirsuitism in females?
Cyproterone is what?
Androgene antagonists for the Tx of Hirsuitism in females
Used in women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer?
aromatase inhibitors – anastrozole and lestrozole…
aromatase inhibitors – anastrozole and lestrozole…
Used in women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer?
aromatase inhibitors are
Used in women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer?

aromatase inhibitors – anastrozole and lestrozole…
…groselin and leuprolide…
Name two drugs that cause downregulation of the GnRH receptor?