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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the differences between Linux and Windows?
-Over 90% of computers in the world run Windows
-Windows started as a desktop OS and migrated to servers
-Linux started as a server OS and migrated to desktops
How do old and new Windows differ?
Old - one thing for a the user at a time
New - multiple processes for multiple users at the same time
What is proprietary mean when it comes to OS?
Proprietary means that it's "closed source"

-Executable programs for a specific OS and documentation
-The most common way to buy software
What does having the source code mean to an OS?
Means that it's "Open Source." The software or OS is governed by the GNU Public license or the BSB license.

-The original source code can be compiled for any OS
-Process behind the program is revealed to everyone
What are the different variants of UNIX?
Cygwin for Windows
Mac OS X (BSD)
Ubuntu (Debian)
Fedora (RedHat)
What is Cygwin for Windows?
Libraries for compiling Linux source
-Some Linux software can run in Windows
-You must have access to the source code

Cygwin isn't Linux
-Some Linux commands and utilities
-Not a "Linux emulator" for Windows
What else is Cygwin for Windows good for?
-Allows detailed scripting in Windows
-Get Windows to interact with Linux-specific services
-GNU tools in Windows
Command line tools
X Windows Server
What is Mac OS X?
-OS X holds almost 7% of the operating system market
-Second most popular OS in the world
What is the history of MAC OS?
Before MAC OS X - not considered "high powered"
-MAC OS made for creating digital graphics
-Not particularly robust as a workhorse desktop
-Not used a server
What are some of the security features of MAC OS X?
-Password assistant - grades strength of a password
-FileVault - home folder encryption with 128-bit AES
-OpenSSH - encrypted
-Ipfw-based firewall
-Most network services disabled by default
Who is Linus Torvalds? What did he do?
-Originally wrote the Linux kernal in the early 1990s
-Released it and the source code to the public and "gave" it to the world via the GNU Project
-Other programmers from around the world joined in
-Even though he originally wrote it, today Torvalds code represents only about 2% of the kernal
Why is Linux important?
-Everything is a file or a directory
-Bypasses system caches and buffers (performance advantage)
-Size is limited
-Can mount almost any FS (using a recent kernal)
-Would allow you to access multiple FS' simultaneously
Why else is Linux important?
-Built in fragmentation prevention
-Temporarily storing information about the location in memory
-Total chaos could result with a sudden power loss
-Larger disks also mean you could run out of "inodes"
-Ext3 introduced some protection against failures
How do "read-only" file systems work in Linux?
Live CDs e.g.

-Can mount partitions and entire disks as "read only"
-May sound like excellent security but...
-After a crash Linux may reboot as read only
--"mount -o remount,rw /"
-Read-only can protect data from users, provided
--data is on a separate partition
--users don't crack the server and become root
-Useful for forensic analysis
What is Ubuntu?
-Based on Debian Linux
-Comes in Desktop and Server editions
-Language support: over 40
-Support architectures - amd64, i386, UltraSPARC, PowerPC
-APT-based package management
-No graphical firewall included
What is Fedora?
-Based on RedHat Linux
-Installer makes user choose: desktop, server or other
-25 languages
-RPM-based package management using "yum"
-Firewall included and enabled by default

-Third most popular distro
How can Linux be used?
-Office suites: OpenOffice, KOffice
-Graphic editing: GIMP, F-Spot
-Finance: MyBudget, KMyMoney, GnuCash
-Gaming: Quake, World of Warcraft, DOOM
How are Linux Live CDs used?
-Allows to "test drive" a distribution
-No hard drive installation required
-No hard drive required!
-Excellent for forensic work
What is 64-bit Linux?
-Allows for a larger instruction set
-Up to 1 Terabyte (1TB) of memory
-64-bit requires special kernal, drivers, and apps
--can't mix and match
--no non open source device drivers
What is "init?"
init is the way processes are started - short for "initialization"
--starts init processes at boot
--stops init processes at shut down
-Provides layer between kernal and user
-Configuration file: