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7 Cards in this Set

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What are the requirements for fetal- neonatal cardio-respiratory transition?
1. Structural maturity of the lung
2. Replacement of fetal lung fluid with air
3. Adequate pulmonary surfactant
4. Onset of breathing
5. Increase in pulmonary blood flow
Name the four stages of fetal lung development
1. Pseudoglandular (5 & 17 wks)
2. Cannalicular (16 & 25 wks)
3. Saccular (24 wks & Term)
4. Alveolar (late pregnancy & throughout infancy)
Name a common cause of transient tachypnea of the newborn
Delay in absorption of Fetal lung fluid is a common cause of neonatal respiratory distress
Name the unique vascular channels that characterize fetal circulation
1. umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetal liver
2. ductus venosus communicates between the umbilical vein and the inferior vena cava
3. foramen ovale brings the oxygenated placental blood from right atrium to left atrium
4. ductus arteriosus carries most of the pulmonary artery flow to the aorta, by-passing the lungs
5. umbilical arteries return deoxygenated blood to the placenta
What are the six contributing factors to premature infants being more susceptible to infection?
1. A maternal genital tract infection is considered to be a significant cause of premature labor.
2. Premature infants have less well developed immune systems.
3. Premature infants have a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome/necrotizing entercolitis which often are accompanied by infectin.
4. Premies often require IV access or endotracheal tubes which offer a portal for infection.
5. Maternal antibodies are primarily transferred to the fetus during the third trimester, so premature infant will have been deprived of the full supply of maternal antibodies.
6. Premies’ skin is thinner and more friable and more likely to crack and provide a portal for entry.
What are the most common transplacental infections?
T: Toxoplasmosis
O: Other (HIV, echovirus, syphilis, Hepatitis B, varicella zoster, parvovirus)
R: Rubella
C: Cytomegalovirus
H: Herpes simplex virus
What are the signs and symptoms of failure to transition?
Signs and symptoms of failure to transition
i. Tachypnea
ii. Intercostal and suprasternal retractions
iii. Nasal flaring
iv. Grunting
v. Cyanosis