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102 Cards in this Set

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FACTORS FOR PROMOTING HEALTHY PREGNANCY
1. QUALITY OF MOTHERS DIET
2. A BALANCE OF REST & EXERCISE
3. FOLLOW GOOD HEALTH PRACTICES
4. HAVE CLOSE MEDICAL SUPERVISION
5. AVOID PESTICIDES, RADIATION,
TERATOGENS
6. EARLY & REGULAR PRENATAL CARE
.
WAYS TO PROMOTE BONDING (PARENT/INFANT)
1. BOTH PARENTS SHOULD VIEW, HOLD AND MOST IMPORTANT TOUCH THE BABY
2. CALLING THE BABY BY NAME
3. HOLDING THE BABY FACE TO FACE, SMILING
4. TALKING TO BABY WITH GENTLE, HIGH PITCH VOICES, INTERACT WITH BABY
.
HOW TO PROMOTE GOOD EATING HABITS FOR INFANTS....

1. BIRTH-6months--GIVE ONLY BREAST MILK OR IRON-FORTIFIED FORMULA.
.
HOW TO PROMOTE GOOD EATING HABITS FOR INFANTS...
5-6 MONTHS
...ADD IRON-FORTIFIED INSTANT CEREAL. BEGIN WITH RICE CEREAL; AVOID WHEAT CEREAL FOR FIRST YEAR....ADD PLAIN, UNSWEETENED FRUIT JUICES, FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN C. DILUTE WITH EQUAL PARTS WATER.
.
HOW TO PROMOTE GOOD EATING HABITS FOR INFANTS...
7-8 MONTHS
...ADD PLAIN, STRAINED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, YOGURT, PLAIN, STRAINED MEATS. AVOID COMBINATIONS. ADD ZWIEBACK, TOAST AND CRACKERS...CONTINUE WITH IRON-FORTIFIED FORMULA, INFANT CEREAL, FRUIT JUICES, INTRODUCE A CUP TO THE INFANT
.
HOW TO PROMOTE GOOD EATING HABITS FOR A INFANT
9-10 MONTHS
...ADD FINGER FOODS, COOKED BITE-SIZE PIECES OF MEAT, VEGETABLES, UNSWEETENED FRUITS, CONTINUE WITH IRON-FORTIFIED FORMULA, INFANT CEREAL, AND FRUIT JUICES
.
HOW TO PROMOTE GOOD EATING HABITS FOR INFANTS..
11-12 MONTHS
ADD SOFT TABLE FOODS; DRY, UNSWEETENED CEREALS, CHEESE SLICES, PEANUT BUTTER, AND NOODLES
.
HOW TO PROMOTE GOOD EATING HABITS FOR TODDLERS...
1.ENCOURAGE TODDLER TO TASTE NEW FOODS
2.INTRODUCE NEW FOOD IN SMALL AMOUNTS WITH REGULAR FOODS
3.PRESENT COLORFUL FOODS OF DIFFERENT TEXTURES
4. EAT WITH THE CHILD
5. NEVER FORCE A CHILD TO EAT
6. PROVIDE A COMFORTABLE ATMOSPHERE
7. MINIMUZE CONFUSION AT MEALTIMES; FOR EXAMPLE, TURN OFF THE TELEVISION
8, RECOGNIZE THAT ACCIDENTS OR SPILLS WILL OCCUR
.
PROMOTING GOOD EATING HABITS FOR PRESCHOOLERS
1. SET GOOD EXAMPLES
2. NEVER FORCE EATING
3. DON'T USE FOOD AS A BRIBE OR REWARD
4. EAT WITH A CHILD
5. PROVIDE A RELAXED ATMOSPHERE
6. ENCOURAGE CHILD'S HELP IN PREPARATION AND CLEANUP
7. PROVIDE POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
8. ALLOW THE CHILD TO EAT FOODS IN ANY ORDER
.
THINGS YOU WOULD LOOK FOR OR CONSIDER WHEN SELECTING A PRESHOOL
1. LOCATION OF PRESCHOOL
2. COST
3. PHILOSOPHY
.
SCHOOL SAFETY LIST
1. PLAYGROUNDS SECURED WITH A FENCE
2. EQUIPMENT FREE OF SHARP EDGES
3. FIRE ALARMS/EXTINGUISHERS
4. EMERGENCY EXITS CLEAR
5. STAFF IS TRAINED
6. CURRICULUM
7. SITE FOR PICKUP/DROPOFF SAFE
.
4 SIGNS OF READINESS FOR TOILET TRAINING...
1. MATURITY IN CHILDS MUSCLES
2. SPHINCTER CONTROL
3. MATURATION OF THE SENSORY CENTERS
4. DEVELOP A SYSTEM OF COMMUNICATION THAT ALLOWS THEM TO ALERT PARENTS OF THEIR NEEDS
5. THEY WILL LEARN BOWEL BEFORE BLADDER
.
DRINKS FROM A CUP

BY 9 MONTHS
.
SITS ALONE


7 MONTHS
.
WALKS


12-15 MONTHS
.
HAS A COMPLETE SET OF DECIDUOUS (BABY TEETH)

BY 2 1/2 YEARS (24-30 MONTHS)
.
CHILD CAN BE OFFERED SOLID FOOD


AFTER THE 5TH MONTH
.
DOUBLES BIRTH WEIGHT

BY 5 TO 6 MONTHS OF AGE
.
TRIPLE ITS BIRTH WEIGHT

BY ITS FIRST BIRTHDAY
.
PRINTS HIS OR HER NAME5


5 YEAR OLDS
.
TEMPER TANTRUMS


1 TO 3 YEARS OLD (TODDLER)
.
JUMPS ROPE


3-6 YEARS
.
MAGICAL THINKING

3 TO 6 YEARS
.
CURIOSITY ABOUT BODY AND DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE BODIES

3-6 YEARS OLD
.
THE AVERAGE WEIGHT OF INFANTS

AT BIRTH, AVERAGE NEWBORN WEIGHS

7.5 LB (3400 G) AVG RANGE 5.5-10 LBS
.
AVERAGE HEIGHT OF INFANT

AT BIRTH, HEEL TO HEEL

20 INCHES (50cm) AVG RANGE 19-21 IN
.
ERIKSON PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT FOR INFANTS...TRUST..VS..MISTRUST

1.INFANT WORKING ON COMPLETING TASK OF TRUST
2. INFANT WILL FEEL SECURE, AND DEVELOP TRUST WHEN THE ENVIRONMENT SATISFYS HER NEEDS FOR FOOD, COMFORT, LOVE. THE FIRST STAGE LAYS OUT THE FOUNDATION ON WHICH FUTURE STAGES WILL BE BUILT. DEPRIVING CAN AFFECT FUTURE.
.
PIAGET CONGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT FOR INFANTS....
1. THE INFANT BEGINS WITH NO UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORLD. THE CHILD LEARNS THROUGH OBSERBATION, SENSORY PERCEPTION. INFANT BEGINS BY TOUCHING, SEEING, HEARING...BABY IS IN SENSORIMOTOR DEVELOPMENT
.
MORAL DEVELOPMENT FOR INFANTS..

NOT PRESENT AT BIRTH..MOTIVATIONAL FORCES GUIDING BEHAVIOR ARE BASED ON SATISFACTION OF NEEDS, NOT MORAL BELIEFS.
.
TYPE OF PLAY FOR INFANTS

SOLITARY; THE INFANT DOES NOT REQUIRE ANOTHER PERSON TO PLAY WITH
.
APPROPRIATE TOYS FOR INFANTS

NEWBORN-1 MONTH (DANGLE BELLS, RATTLE, PLAY MUSIC FROM RADIO OR MUSIC BOX
2-3 MONTHS..PROVIDE REACH-FOR/MIRROR
4-5 MONTHS..SOFT TOYS/BLANKET/COLORED TOYS, JUMP OR BOUNCE INFANT ON LAP/MIMIC
6-9 MONTHS..SQUEAKY TOYS/STUFFED TOYS/ TOYS W/MOVEABLE PARTS, PLAY PATTY CAKE/PEEK A BOO/ NAME BODY PARTS/RIDES IN STROLLER
10-12 MONTHS..SCRIBBLES/PULL TOYS/BOOK WITH ANIMAL PHOTOS/NURSERY RHYMES/LARGE BALL/BUBBLES IN CUP
.
SAFETY CONCERNS FOR THE INFANT..

SUFFOCATION
FALLS
CHOKING
POISONING
DROWNING
BURNS
CAR ACCIDENTS
.
HEALTH PROMOTION FOR INFANTS

IS AIMED AT ASSISTING THE INFANT IN MOVEMENT TOWARD OPTIMAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1.>101*F FEVER 2.DIFFICULT, LABORED BREATHING 3. RASH 4. ABSENSE OF STOOLS OR URINE 5.VOMITING/DIARRHEA...
.
DEFINE TODDLER-

A CHILD IN THE AGE RANGE 1-3 YEARS OLD
.
DEFINE INFANT-

AGE IS BIRTH TO 12 MONTHS OLD
.
DEFINE EMBRYO-

THE DEVELOPING ORGANISM. CALLED THIS UNTIL THE END OF THE EIGHTH WEEK
.
DEFINE FETUS-

THE DEVELOPING ORGANISM. CALLED THIS FROM THE 8TH WEEK UNTIL BIRTH
.
DEFINE TERATOGEN-

CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL SUBSTANCES THAT CAN ADVERSELY AFFECT THE UNBORN
.
DEFINE NEGATIVISM-

NEGATIVE, REBELLIOUS BEHAVIOR EXHIBITED BY TODDLERS THAT IS CAUSED BY FRUSTRATION OR A CONFLICT OF WILLS.
.
DEFINE RITUALISM-

REPETITIVE BEHAVIOR, HABITS, OR ROUTINES THAT SERVE TO LOWER ANXIETY
.
DEFINE REGRESSION-

A RETURN TO AN EARLIER STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT DURING STRESSFUL PERIODS
.
DEFINE SIBLING RIVALRY-

JEALOUSY OF SIBLINGS THAT CAUSES FEELINGS OF INSECURITY
.
DEFINE SEPARATION ANXIETY-

ANXIETY BROUGHT ON BY STRESS WHEN THE YOUNG CHILD IS SEPARATED FROM FAMILY BY SCHOOL, HOSPITALIZATION, OR FAMILY DEATH
.
DEFINE NEONATE-

THE NEWBORN OR THE FIRST 4 WEEKS OF EXTRAUTERINE LIFE
.
DEFINE ENURESIS-

BEDWETTING AFTER THE AGE WHEN URINARY CONTROL HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED
.
WEANING - THE GRADUAL SUBSTITUTION OF THE CUP FOR THE BREAST OR BOTTLE

WAYS..SUBSTITUTE THE LUNCH BOTTLE FOR A CUP, BABY IS STILL AWAKE AND NOT TOO TIRED
.
THUMBSUCKING -

THOUGHT TO BE PRIMITIVE, INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR THAT MAY FULFILL THE CHILD'S SUCKING AND COMFORT NEEDS

CONCERN: PROLONGED CAUSE MALALIGNMENT OF THE TEETH..PARENTS DISCOURAGE.OFFER OTHER COMFORT TEDDY BEAR, DOLL
.
SECURITY BLANKETS

CAN BE A COMFORT, KEEP THEM CLEAN
PROBABLY WILL GROW OUT OF
.
TEMPER TANTRUMS -
1. ENSURE THE SAFETY OF THE CHILD
2. STAND BACK, DEEP BREATH, WAIT A FEW SECONDS BEFORE RESPONDING
3. TAKE CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENT, REMOVE CHILD TO A NEUTRAL SITE
4. IGNORE THE TANTRUM WITHOUT IGNORING THE CHILD
5. USE A CONTROLLED TONE OF VOICE, NEVER SCREAM
6. ACKNOWLEDGE TEH CHILD'S UPSET FEELINGS
7. AVOID REASONING WHEN THE CHILD IS OUT OF CONTROL
8. DON'T WORRY ABOUT WHAT PEOPLE AROUND YOU THINK
9. BE CONSISTENT AND FIRM IN SETTING LIMITS WITHOUT ANGER
.
TOILET-TRAINING- IS OFTEN MORE IMPORTANT TO THE PARENTS THAN THE CHILD

BY 3 1/2 THE CHILD SHOULD BE TOILET TRAINED, CHANGES IN SCHEDULES, EMOTIONAL STRESS, FATIGUE OR ILLNESS CAN OFTEN CAUSE SETBACKS HANDLE IN A NO PUNISHMENT WAY
.
BED-WETTING ISSUE--

STRESS AND ILLNESS APPEAR TO MAKE IT WORSE, IF IT PERSISTS, GO TO DOCTOR, MINIMIZE EACH EPISODE AND AVOIDS MAKING THE CHILD FEEL GUILTY OR ASHAMED. GO TO BATHROOM OFTEN AND BEFORE BED...
.
INFANTS MOTOR SKILLS

HEAD CONTROL - 2 MONTHS
HOLDS HEAD UP - 3 MONTHS
RAISE TO A 90* ANGLE - 4 MONTHS
ROLLING OVER - AB TO BK 4 MONTHS
ROLL BOTH WAYS- 6 MONTHS
SIT UP W/SUPPORT & HEAD ERECT
.
HINTS FOR INFANTS:
1. INFANTS WHO CRY WITH FINGERS IN MOUTH...HUNGER
2. INFANTS WHO CRY WITH LEGS UP AND PASS GAS USUALLY HAVE COLIC
3. HIGH-PITCHED SHRILL CRY..INJURY TO CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
.
BREASTFEEDING VS BOTTLE FEEDING
1. NO PREP REQUIRED
2. FREE
3. MOTHER MUST BE PRESNT OR PUMP AHEAD
4. EASILY DIGESTED, CAUSES LESS GI/ALLERGY
5. PROMOTES BONDING, IMMUNE BONDING, UTERUS CONTRACTS, PERIOD DELAYED
.
MANAGING ADVERSE FOOD REACTIONS:
1. ALTER THE DIET TO ELIMATE SYMPTOMS WITHOUT COMPROMISING NUTRITION
2. SLOWLY REINTRODUCE A FOOD TO SEE IF SYMPTOMS RECUR, IF SO REMOVE 1-3 MONTHS
3.
.
INHERITED CHARACTERISTICS ARE DETERMINED AT THE TIME OF CONCEPTION
.
ANY SUBSTANCE THAT CAN ADVERSELY AFFECT THE DEVELOPING CHILD IS CALLED THE
TERATOGEN
.
THE APGAR SCORE IS THE FIRST ASSESSMENT OF THE NEWBORN...STATING NEUROLOGICAL STATUS OF THE NEWBORN
.
APGAR SCORING MEASURES??

THE NEWBORN'S NEUROLOGICAL STATE
.
THE AVERAGE LENGTH OF A FULLY DEVELOPED NEWBORN??

50 CM
.
WHICH STOOL TYPE IS CONSIDERED NORMAL IN BREAST FED BABIES?

LIGHT SEEDED MUSTARD STOOLS
.
AT BIRTH MOST INFANTS ARE ??

ABLE TO HEAR SOUNDS
.
AGE 6, MASTERED THE PINCER GRASP??

HE PICKS UP A SMALL MORSEL OF FOOD
.
MOST INFANTS WITH NORMAL MOTOR DEVELOPMENT CAN SIT ALONE AT AGE??

7 MONTHS
.
THE TYPICAL 12 MONTH OLD WILL ??

SAY A FEW WORDS
.
THE PURPOSE OF PLAY DURING INFANCY IS TO ??

AID EXPLORATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
.
MILESTONES FOR THE 3 YEAR OLD
GROSS MOTOR-

BALANCES ON ONE FOOT
JUMPS ON BOTH FEET
WALKS UP STEPS USING BOTH FEET
RUNS
.
MILESTONES 3 YR OLD - FINE MOTOR SKILLS

RIDES A TRICYCLE
PUTS SIMPLE PUZZLES TOGETHER
BUILDS A TOWER OF BLOCKS
COPIES A CIRCLE
TURNS KNOBS AND OPENS LIDS
.
PHYCOSOCIAL- FOR 3 YEAR OLDS

TOLERATES SHORT SEPARATIONS FROM MOM
DRESSES AND UNDRESSES SELF
IS POSSESSIVE OF OWN PROPERTY
IS NEARLY FULLY TOILET TRAINED
.
COGNITIVE FOR 3 YEAR OLDS

SEARCHES AND FINDS TOYS
LOCATES BODY PARTS
KNOWS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THINGS & PERSONS
GIVES FULL NAME
.
LANGUAGE FOR 3 YEARS OLD

USES WORDS AND GESTURES TO INDICATE NEEDS
USES TWO-WORD SENTANCES
IMITATES SOUNDS AND WORDS
SINGS SIMPLE SONGS
HAS VOCABULARY OF 1000 WORDS
.
ERIKSONS TODDLER
AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT

AUTONOMY IS BY THE MASTERING OF SKILLS, FEEDING, MOBILITY, DRESSING, TOLIET TRAINING..IT STRENGTHENS THE CHILD'S SELF CONCEPT. WITHOUT LOVING SUPPORT THE CHILD DEVELOPS FEELINGS OF SHAM AND DOUBT
.
COGNITIVE-PIAGET-TODDLER
PREOPERATIONAL STAGE

DEVELOPMENT AND MASTERY OF LANGUAGE. BY EGOCENTRISM, CHILD SEES HIMSELF AS THE CENTER, UNABLE TO ACCEPT OTHER VIEWPOINTS, USES LANGUAGE AND GESTURES, AT THIS TIME OBJECTS ARE SINGULAR AND ONE DIMENSIONAL TO THE CHILD. CAN CREATE A MENTAL PICTURE OF AN OBJECT OR PERSON
.
PRESCHOOL-COGNITIVE-PIAGET
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE 6-12

CHILD IS BEGINNING TO THINK LOGICALLY, SOLVE PROBLEMS, LESS EGOCENTRIC, MORE SOCIAL, CAR OR IS IT A 2000 TAURUS
.
KOLBERG-MORAL DEVELOPMENT-4 YRS TO 10

LEVEL 1: CHILD LEARNS REASONING THROUGH THE PARENTS DEMAND FOR OBEDIENCE. TO AVOID PUNISHMENT, THE CHILD BEGINS TO RELIZE RIGHT FROM WRONG
.
UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIOR
1. CONTEXT WHICH IT OCCURS/LOOKING AT ALL RELATED FACTORS
2. ALL BEHAVIORS HAVE OBJECTIVES/SERVE A PURPOSE
3. CHILD'S SELF CONCEPT INFLUENCES HIS OR HER BEHAVIOR
4. BEHAVIOR HELPS THE CHILD MAINTAIN PSYCHOLOGICAL EQUILBRIUM
5. CHILD'S PERCEPTION AND INTERPRETATION OF BEHAVIOR INFLUENCE HIS ACTIONS
.
DISCIPLINE
UNDERSTAND THE MISBEHAVIOR
RESPECT CHILD
BE FIRM AND KIND AND PATIENT
REWARD AND PRAISE OFTEN
LISTEN AVOID PITY, MAINTAIN CONTROL
.
GIVING UP COMFORT ITEMS
1. RECOGNIZE THE TRANSITIONAL OBJECT AS A PART OF THE CHILD'S JOURNEY TOWARD INDEPENDENCE
2. TRY TO OFFER A SUB RATHER ON INSISTING ON REMOVING OBJECT
3. ALLOW ENOUGH TIME FOR THE CHILD TO REACH A STAGE OF READINESS
.
PROMOTING SELF ESTEEM
1. ATTEND TO CHILDS NEED ASAP
2. SPEND SPECIAL TIME WITH THE CHILD
3. IGNORE MINOR MISHAPS
4. LISTEN ATTENTIVELY
5. CONVEY POSITIVE REGARD
6. LABEL BEHAVIOR, NOT THE CHILD
7. GIVE POSITIVE FEEDBACK
8, BE CONGRUENT WITH COMMUNICATION
9. IF INDICATED, OFFER AN APOLOGY
.
TODDLERS NEED FOODS THAT HAVE MINERALS FOR MUSCLE TONE AND BONE GROWTH

3 SERVINGS OF VEGETABLES
3-4 SERVINGS OF FRUIT FOR VITAMIN C
ADEQUATE FIBER, IRON RICH FOODS, CEREALS, MEATS AND FRUITS
MILK LIMITED TO 1 QUART A DAY
1300 CALORIES A DAY
.
SLEEP PATTERNS
1. SET CONSISTENT ROUTINE, CANT FORCE A CHILD TO SLEEP
2. QUIET RITUALS BEFORE BEDTIME
3. NIGHT LIGHT
NOT ALL CHILDREN REQUIRE SAME AMOUNT OF SLEEP
.
TODDLER - PARALLEL PLAY

PLAYS ALONGSIDE OTHER CHILDREN, DOES NOT INTERACT OR SHARE

PLAYTOYS: TRIKES,SWINGS,HORSE,CUBES, PAINT AND BRUSHES, DRUMS, BELLS
.
HEALTH PROMOTION: FOR TODDLERS

DR EXAMS, TO MONITOR GROWTH PATTERNS, HEALTH SCREENING, 18, 24, 36 MONTHS FOR VISITS, TB AT 24 MONTHS, MEASLES MUMPS, RUBELLA 12-15M, VARICELLA 12-18M
.
GROWTH RATE OF TODDLERS SLOW DOWN COMPARED TO INFANTS.

HR, BP, RR DECREASE
.
TODDLERS MOTIVATION TO ACQUIRE AND MASTER MOST PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS IS RELATED TO THEIR NEED FOR:

INDEPENDENCE
.
FINE MOTOR SKILLS THAT SHOULD BE MASTERED BY 3 YEARS OLD ?

USING A CRAYON TO DRAW A CIRCLE
.
MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE TODDLER IS BASED ON ??

COPYING PARENTAL VALUES
.
TODDLERS RESIST SLEEP, WHY??

CURIOSITY
.
PRESCHOOL

TRUNK AND BODY LENGTHEN, GAIN 5-7 LBS

MOST GROW 2-3 INCHES A YEAR
.
TO STIMULATE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

READ TO YOUR CHILD
ENCOURAGE STORY TELLING
PLAY NAMING GAMES
CORRECT PRONUNCIATIONS
.
PRESCHOOLERS

COOPERATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE PLAY

NEED DPT AND TOPV SHOTS
.
PRESCHOOL GROWTH, SLOW AND STEADY

EYES AND EARS IMPROVE

EAR MAKEUP OF THE PRESCHOOLER CONTINUES TO ACCOUNT FOR EAR INFECTIONS

MASTERBATION, COMMON
.
PRESCHOOLERS

DIVORCE..COMMON STRESSES THAT AFFECT CHILDREN, THINKING THEY DID SOMETHING WRONG
.
COMMUNICATION, 911, NAME AND ADDRESSES

1800 CALORIES DAILY NEEDED FOR PRESCHOOLERS
.
THE ERECT POSTURE AND STEADY GAIT SEEN IN PRESCHOOLERS MAY BE DUE TO:

MOVEMENT OF THE FOOT TOWARD THE CENTER OF THE BODY
.
EAR INFECTIONS ARE MORE COMMON IN PRESCHOOLERS BECAUSE:

SHORT EUSTACHIAN TUBES
.
PRESCHOOL PLAY

ASSOCIATIVE PLAY
.
OCCASIONAL PERIODS OF MASTERBATION WITH PRESCHOOLERS:

A NORMAL PATTERN OF DEVELOPMENT
.
NIGHT MARES VERSES NIGHT TERRORS...DIFFER HOW??

NIGHT TERRORS, THE CHILD HAS NO RECALL OF THE EVENT
.
SIBLING RIVALRY IS BEST RESOLVED BY:

SEPARATING BOTH CHILDREN
.
TODDLERS

34 INCHES BY 2 YEARS

37.5 BY 3 YEARS OLD
.
5 GALLON BUCKETS ARE DANGEROUS FOR ALL LITTLE KIDS..
.