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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The rudder is used to control the ______ about the airplanes _________ axis.
Yaw & Vertical
What is the function of the flaps?
Increase wing lift which allows an increase in the angle of descent without adding speed.
4 aerodynamic forces acting on an airplane during flight.
Lift(upward) , weight(downward) , thrust(forward) , drag(rearward)
All the forces are ______ when in unaccelerated flight.
equilibrium ( even )

Define "wing chord"
imaginary line from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing.
Define "relative wind"
Direction of airflow relative to the wing when the wing is moving through the air.
Define "angle of attack"
the angle between the chord line and the direction of the wind.
Define "stall"
a stall is when the angle of attack is exceeded.
Define "spin"
when one wing is lessed stalled than the other.
What is one defining factor that relates to all spins?
The plane must first be stalled.
What effect does frost have on wings?
Decreases lift and causes friction and increases drag.
T or F. Frost can cause a plane to not take off.
T or F. Frost MUST be removed prior to take off.
Define "ground effect"
interference of the ground (or water) surface with the airflow patterns about a plane.
When producing lift, a wing generates strong swirling masses of air off both its wingtips called ________.
Wingtip Vortices.
How is lift on a wing generated?
a wing generates lift because there is a lower pressure on its upper surface than on its lower surface
What does downwash cause?
an induced angle of attack which reduces lift.
If the atmosphere has ______ _______, you can see the wind vortex.
High Humidity.
Define "downwash"
the forcing of air downward during the creation of lift.
What are the components to turn an aircraft.
coordinate rudder, aileron and elevator.
What determines the longitudinal stability of an airplane?
the center of gravity in conjunction with the center of lift.
When an airplane is powered down, the nose ______.
When is the torque ( left turning tendency) worst?
At low airspeeds.
The torque effect ( left-turn tendency ) is worst at time?
Low airspeed, High angle of attack, high airspeed( take off)
Define " p-factor "
Propellor causing the plane to yaw to the left to due to the right side of the propellors "higher" angle of attack.
define "load factor"
Amount of weight a planes wings can withstand from added weight.
How can you determine the amount of excess load can be added?
the speed and excess lift available.
T or F . At high speeds, excess weight can affect the safety limits.
T or F. The angle of attack at which an airplane wing stalls will remain the same regardless of gross weight.
TRUE. a plane will always stall at the same angle of attack regardless of airspeed,weight, load factor, or density altitude.
All the performances of an airplane are dependant up on _____ _____.
air density.
As air density decreases, the airplane stalls at a _______ true airspeed.
T or F. Induced drag decreases while in "ground effect"
Becoming airborne before suggested take off speed is an example of _____ _____
Ground effect.
What force makes a plane turn?
Horizontal lift.
T or F. an inherintley stable airplane will require less effort to control.
What determines the longitudinal stability of an airplane?
Location of the center of gravity with respect to the center of lift.
define " forware cg limit"
The forward cg limit is determined by the elevator's power to flare the aeroplane in a landing configuration.
What causes an airplane to pitch down when power is reduced?
the downwash of the elevators from the propellor is reduced.
Loading an aircraft to the most aft cg will cause the plane to be.....
less at all speeds.
when does p-factor cause the plane to yaw to the left?
at high angles of attack.
T or F. Magnetic compass's are only accurate during straight and level flight.
The Pitot-Static system runs the ........
Altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator.
T or F. The Pitot tube provides impact pressure for the airspeed indicator only.
In the airspeed indicator, the white arc indicates the .......
full flap operating range.
Vso ( air speed indicator )
lower limit stalling speed with landing gear and flaps in place.
Vfe ( air speed indicator )
max full flaps speed
Green arc ( air speed indicator )
Normal operation speed.
Vs1 ( air speed indicator )
stalling speed with flaps/gear up.
Vno ( air speed indicator )
max cruising speed in normal operation
Yellow arc ( air speed indicator )
safe speed in smooth air only
yellow arc ( air speed indicator )
caution color
Vne(red) ( air speed indicator )
bad( never exceed)
Va ( most important, not shown, color ) ( air speed indicator )
maneuvering speed.