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40 Cards in this Set

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Where is the right lobe of the pancreas found across species?
Located within the mesoduodenum
At what level is the pancreas located in the equine?
Sits transversely on the dorsal wall of the abdomen at the 17th thoracic vertebra
Where is the left lobe of the pancreas found in the equine? In the ruminant?
Located within the deep layer of the greater omentum in the equine.

In the ruminant: Located within the dorsal attachment of the greater omentum at the root of the mesentery
What is the body of the pancreas?
Joins the two lobes
Where do the pancreatic and accessory panceatic duct drain in the horse?
Pancreatic duct drains at the major duodenal papilla (hepatopancreatic ampulla) in the duodenum along with the common hepatic duct
Accessory pancreatic duct drains at the minor duodenal papilla
What are the main pancreatic and accessory pancreatic ducts of ox and small ruminants? What does the pancreatic duct drain with in the ruminant?
Pancreatic duct
Drains at the major duodenal papilla in the duodenum along with the common bile duct
Main duct in small ruminants
Occasionally present in the ox

Accessory pancreatic duct
Drains at the minor duodenal papilla
Main duct in the ox
Not present in small ruminants
What are the twists and turns of the equine small intestine?
Cranial part
Cranial duodenal flexure
Descending duodenum (2)
Caudal duodenal flexure
-Courses caudal to the cranial mesenteric artery
Ascending duodenum (3)
Duodenojejunal flexure
What is the mesoduodenum? What does it course between in the equine?
Between the cranial part of the duodenum and the liver
Between the descending duodenum and the right dorsal colon
Between the ascending duodenum and base of the cecum and the right kidney
What is the duodenocolic fold of the equine?
Between the ascending duodenum and descending colon
What is the major duodenal papilla a site of drainage for?
Site of drainage of the common hepatic duct and pancreatic duct
What is the minor duodenal papilla a site of drainage for?
Site of drainage of the accessory pancreatic duct
What else is mesojejunum known as? What does it course between? What is in the root of the mesentery? What level is the root of the mesentery in the equine?
mesentery

Courses between the dorsal abdominal wall (around the cranial mesenteric artery at L1 vertebra) and the jejunum
Where does ingesta flow after the ileum in the equine? Via what opening?
Ingesta flows from the ileum to the cecum via the ileocecal orifice at the ileal papilla

No ileocolic orifice
What is the implication of there being no ileocolic orifice in the horse?
ingesta must go from ileum to cecum to colon
What courses between the antimesenteric surface of the ileum and the dorsal cecal band of the equine?
Ileocecal fold
Despite the species differences, name the parts of these large intestines (1-9').
1. Ileum
2. Cecum
3. Ascending colon
4. Transverse colon
5. Descending colon
6. Rectum
7. Aorta
8. Celiac artery
9. Cranial mesenteric artery
9’. Caudal mesenteric artery
What are synonyms to bands and haustra that we need to know?
Teniae (bands)
Smooth muscle and elastic fibers
Oriented longitudinally

Haustra (sacculations)
What are the numbers of bands on the large intestine?
Cecum – 4
Right ventral colon – 4
Left ventral colon – 4
Left dorsal colon – 1
Right dorsal colon – 3
Transverse colon – 2
Descending colon – 2

444-1322
Name the regions of the cecum. Which is most secured?
Base (1)
-Located in the right paralumbar fossa
-most secured
Body (2)
Apex (3)
-Located on the floor of the abdomen near the xiphoid cartilage
What are the names of the four bands of the cecum? What do they course between (if anything) and what vessels are associated with them (if any)?
Dorsal cecal band
Ileocecal fold
Courses between the ileum and cecum
Ventral cecal band
Medial cecal band
Medial cecal artery and vein
Lateral cecal band
Cecocolic fold
Courses between the cecum and the right ventral colon
Lateral cecal artery and vein
This is a dorsal view of the equine intestines. The key is included, but can you name them?
Here are transverse sections of the equine colon. Can you name the areas without the labels?
Follow ingesta from the ascending colon to descending colon with bands listed.
Ascending colon
Right ventral colon (4)
Sternal flexure
Left ventral colon (4)
Pelvic flexure
-Midway point of ascending colon
Left dorsal colon (1)
Diaphragmatic flexure
Right dorsal colon (3)

Transverse colon (2)
Courses right to left cranial to the cranial mesenteric artery

Descending colon (2)
How many bands do the cecum, right ventral colon and left ventral colon? What is the pneumonic to remember that?
4.

4 on the floor.
Jejunum v small colon.
Tenaie?
Haustra?
LN location?
Which is fatter?
Vasa recti?
Jejunum
No teniae
No haustra
Lymph nodes located at root of mesentery
Less fat in mesentery
Vasa recti (straight vessels) longer and farther apart

Small colon
Teniae
Haustra
Lymph nodes located along mesocolic attachment
More fat in mesentery
Vasa recti shorter and closer together
In a rectal exam, what are the structures labeled here that you can palpate?
1. Thoracic cavity
2. Diaphragm
3. Tuber coxae
4. Terminal line
5. Pelvic cavity
6. Thigh and stifle
7. Approximate range in rectal palpation
In a rectal exam, what equine structures here can you palpate?
Everything behind the dashed line
1. Thoracic cavity
2. Diaphragm
3. Tuber coxae
4. Terminal line
5. Pelvic cavity
6. Thigh and stifle
7. Approximate range in rectal palpation
8. Deep inguinal ring
9. Left kidney; 9’. Right kidney
10. Spleen
11. Stomach
12. Liver
13. Pancreas
What are the fixed/non-fixed abdominal organs palpable on the left side of the horse?
Left side
Fixed
Spleen
Renosplenic ligament
Left kidney
Vaginal ring
Non-fixed
Left ventral colon
Pelvic flexure
Left dorsal colon
Descending colon
Jejunum
Ileum
What are the fixed/non-fixed abdominal organs rectally palpable on the right side of the horse?
Right side
Fixed
Caudal duodenal flexure
Ileocecal junction
Base of cecum
Vaginal ring

Non-fixed
Jejunum
Ileum
Descending colon
What are the common sites for blockage in the equine digestive tract and why?
Any place that goes to a small diameter or a tight turn can be susceptible.

Caudal duodenal flexure
Cecum
Ileocecal orifice
Sternal flexure
Pelvic flexure - narrowing and sharp bend
Transverse colon - narrowing
Rectum
What are the twists and turns of the bovine duodenum?
Duodenum
Cranial part
Cranial duodenal flexure
Descending duodenum
Caudal duodenal flexure
Courses caudal to the cranial mesenteric artery
Ascending duodenum
Duodenojejunal flexure
In what area does the majority of the jejunum sit in in the bovine?
Numerous coils located mostly in the supraomental recess on the right side of the rumen
Where does the ingesta flow to from the ileum in the bovine?
Ingesta flows from the ileum to the junction of the cecum and colon via the ileal orifice
Describe the course of ingesta flow in the bovine large intestine?
Cecum (5)
Ascending colon:
-Proximal loop (7)
-Spiral colon
--Centripetal coils (8)
--Central flexure
--Centrifugal coils (9)
-Distal loop (10)
Transverse colon (11
Descending colon (12) with sigmoid flexure
Rectum (13)
What is the analogous structure to the pelvic flexure in the bovine?
The central flexure.
What are 16 and 17 here?
16. Proximal loop of ascending colon
17. Cecum
What is the difference in the large and small ruminant jejunal lymph nodes? What's the clinical signifigance?
Large ruminant – jejunal (mesenteric) lymph nodes located in the mesentery near the jejunum

Small ruminant – last centrifugal coil located in the mesentery near the jejunum

Clinical signifigance - if you try and use the same landmarks for lymph node biopsies, you'll get intestine in one of the animals.
What are the rectally palpable fixed and non-fixed abdominal organs in the ox on the left side?
Left side
Fixed
Rumen
Left kidney
Vaginal ring

Non-fixed
Body and apex of cecum
Jejunum
Ileum
What are the rectally palpable fixed and non-fixed abdominal organs in the ox on the right side?
Right side
Fixed
Caudal duodenal flexure
Base of cecum
Spiral colon
Vaginal ring

Non-fixed
Jejunum
Ileum
Do camelids have spiral colons?
Yes.
Also, these lymph nodes are enlarged - they shouldn't be that big.
Do pigs have a spiral colon?
Yes