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44 Cards in this Set

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What are the supports of the reproductive tract of the cow?
Mesometrium
Mesovarium
Mesosalpinx
Suspensory ligament of the ovary
Round ligament of the uterus
What are the round fetal structures of animals?
Round ligament of the uterus, bladder and liver
ID this - cow and mare on left, bitch on right
1 Uterine tube
2 Ovary
3 Mesovarium
4 Mesosalpinx
5 Arrow entering ovarian bursa
6 Infundibulum
Which of these are the mare and which is the cow/sow? What types of uteri are they?
A. Duplex uterus
Rabbit
B. Bicornuate uterus, small body
Cow and sow
C. Bicornuate uterus, large body
Mare
D. Simple uterus
Primate
Which species, mare or cow, has a larger uterine body?
The mare does - they look similar from the outside, but the internal structures make that clear
What connects the uterine horns in the cow?
the intercornual ligament. She likes this picture for its depiction of the broad ligament. Needs to be extensive to support the calf.
What makes up the placentomes of cows?

How many are usually seen?
Caruncles
Cotyledons

Usually about 100 with about 40 at the base of the ueterine horns
Why is it harder to AI a cow before her first pregnancy?
circular mucosal folds are tighter before the first pregnancy
How does the portio vaginalis change in the pregnancy of cows? What is the area around the portio vaginalis called?
It tightens, even forming a mucous plug.

The area around the portio vaginalis in the cow is the fornix of the vagina
What is the clinical signifigance of vaginal tears in mares and cows?
It could open up into the peritoneum. Mares are pretty susceptible to peritoneum where cows aren't so much, but still.
Who has suburethral diverticuli? What is the clinical signifigance of them?
Suburethral diverticulum in cloven hooved mammals – a catheter could get stuck here instead of the urethra
ID these cow structures
1 Vagina
2 Bladder
3 Urethra
4 Suburethral diverticulum
5 Vulva
What is the type of this uterus?
Nongravid and 6-months gravid uterus
Which cow is about to give birth?
the one on the right
She has both swelling of the vulva and relaxation of the sacrosciatic ligament.
ID these mare ovary and uterine tube of the mare
1 Ovary
2 Infundibulum with fimbria
3 Ampulla of uterine tube
4 Isthmus of uterine tube
5 Uterine horn
6 Mesovarium
7 Mesosalpinx
8 Mesometrium
9 Entrance to ovarian bursa
What's unique about the mare's ovaries?
They're inside out. All ovulations happen at the ovulation fossa.
Is there a portio vaginalis in the mare?
Is there a suburethral diverticulum?
Yes and no
What is the clinical significance of the equine clitoris?
Need to know

It is large (that whole center thing) - and it has these clitoral sinuses, because the organism that causes equine contagious metritus can hide out in here
ID these mare structures
1 Vagina
2 Bladder
3 Urethra
4 Suburethral diverticulum
5 Vulva
What is a caslick's procedure?
Caslick’s procedure in a horse – vulvar lips can open and pull apart and they can wind suck. A horse can wind suck from the oral end, or the vulvar end which would give an introduction of bacteria. You can remove mucosa from the dorsal end of the vulva and is then sutured together. You leave the ventral part open.
ID these mare pelvic structures
1 Rectum
2 Anal canal
3 Uterus
4 Cervix
5 Vagina
6 Vestibule
7 Bladder
8 Urethra
9 Caudal extent of peritoneum
How long are porcine uterine horns? Gravid and nongravid?

How long is her cervix?
Long uterine horns
Non gravid – 1 meter in length
Gravid – may double in length

Long cervix – up to 25 cm
Does a sow have a suburethral diverticulum?

What kind of placenta does she have?
Suburethral diverticulum present
Diffuse placenta
What can you palpate in the uterine artery to help diagnosis pregnancy?
May rectally palpate fremitus (or thrill) in uterine artery – similar to cow
Who's mucosal ridges in the cervix win - the bovid's or the porcine's?
The bovid's - though the sows are impressive as well
What type of uterus do camelids have? with what kind of uterine body?
Bicornuate uterus with small uterine bod
Which uterine horn do 95% of camelid pregnancies occur in? Why?
Most pregnancies occur in the left uterine horn

I don't remember why.
Do camelids have suburethral diverticulum?
Yes - present just caudal to the external urethral orifice
How does the equine uterus change in pregnancy?
Thusly
Compare and contrast the ampulla and isthmus lengths of the mare and cow.
Ampulla and isthmus about 10 cm in length each in the mare
Ampulla is about 2 times longer than isthmus in the cow.
Which bovine vulva will be more prominent, that of a first-timer or later?
Vulva more obvious in first time pregnancies
What's a non-gravid uterus?
A non-pregnant uterus
What provides the blood supply to the cow's reproductive tract off of the internal iliac a.?
Internal iliac artery (19)
Umbilical a. (20)
-Uterine a. (21) / artery of the ductus deferens
-Cranial vesical a. (23)
Iliolumbar a. (25)
Cranial gluteal a. (26)
-Obturator a. (goat)
Obturator a. (27) (Ox & Sheep)
Vaginal a. (30) / Prostatic a.
Caudal gluteal a. (24)
Internal pudendal a. (29)
-Ventral perineal a. (39)
-Artery of the clitoris (42) / penis
What is the main blood supply to the uterus of the cow?

Where does it come from?

What is the equivalent male structure?
The uterine artery.
It comes from the umbilical a off of the internal iliac artery

It's male counterpart is the artery of the ductus deferens. Very important in the stallion, more than the bull.
What does the internal iliac artery terminally branch into in all species?
The caudal gluteal a. and internal pudendal a.
What are the three main supplies of blood to the reproductive tract of the cow? and where do they come from?
Ovarian a. (2) from aorta (1)
-Uterine (4) br.

Uterine a. (21) from umbilical a. (20) from internal iliac a. (19)
-Primary supply to the uterus
-Fremitus

Vaginal a. (30) from internal iliac a. (19)
Where does the ovarian artery come from in the cow? What branch does it have coming off of it? Why are the arterial convolutions in close contact with the ovarian v.?

Why is the ovarian artery so siginicant?
It comes from the aorta and gives off uterine branches.

Arterial convolutions are in close contact to ovarian v. for prostaglandin transfer

The ovarian a. is one of the three blood supplies to the cow's reproductive tract.

NEED TO KNOW
Where does the uterine artery originate from in the cow? What does it supply? What clinical significance does this artery serve?
Uterine a. from umbilical a. from internal iliac a.
Primary supply to the uterus
Fremitus

The uterine a. is one of the three blood supplies to the cow's reproductive tract.

NEED TO KNOW
Where does the vaginal artery originate from in the cow? What does it supply blood to? What clinical significance does this artery serve?

What does it branch into?
Vaginal a. from internal iliac a.

To vagina, cervix, caudal part of uterus, bladder, urethra

Distal brs. of internal pudendal a.
Caudal part of vagina, vestibule

The vaginal a. is one of the three blood supplies to the cow's reproductive tract.

NEED TO KNOW
What are the branches off of the internal iliac artery in the mare?
Caudal gluteal a. (23)
-Cranial gluteal a. (24)
--Obturator a. (26)
---Iliacofemoral a. (27)
---Middle artery of the penis
--Iliolumbar a. (25)
-Median caudal a. (29)

Internal pudendal a. (33)
-Umbilical a. (34)
--Cranial vesical a.
-Vaginal a. / Prostatic a.
-Ventral perineal a. (35)
-Artery of the clitoris / penis
What are the three main blood supplies to the reproductive tract of the mare?
Ovarian a. (2) from aorta
-Uterine br. (4)

Uterine a. (21) from external iliac a. (7)
-Primary supply to the uterus
-Anastomoses with branches of ovarian and vaginal aa.

Vaginal a. (30) from internal pudendal a. (29)
-To vagina, cervix, caudal part of uterus (31), bladder, urethra

Distal brs. of internal pudendal a. (29)
-Caudal part of vagina, vestibule
Where does the ovarian artery come from in the mare? What branches off of it?
What are the clinical significances?
Ovarian a. from aorta
Uterine br.

This is one of the three blood supplies to the reproductive tract of the mare.

Need to know
Where does the uterine artery come from in the mare? What does it anastomose with?

What are the clinical significances?
Uterine a. from external iliac a.
Primary supply to the uterus
Anastomoses with branches of ovarian and vaginal aa.

This is one of the three blood supplies to the reproductive tract of the mare.

Need to know
Where does the vaginal artery come from in the mare? What does supply blood to? Where does it terminate?

What are the clinical significances?
Vaginal a. from internal pudendal a.
To vagina, cervix, caudal part of uterus, bladder, urethra
Distal brs. of internal pudendal a.
Caudal part of vagina, vestibule

This is one of the three blood supplies to the reproductive tract of the mare.

Need to know