Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/87

Click to flip

87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
in a fetus, the umbilical vein is named for the circulation of the fetus or the mother?
the fetus
what does the umbilical vein become after birth?
ligamentum teres hepatis
where does each half of the liver's blood come from in a fetus?
-umbilical vein
-inferior vena cava
what duct is used to get blood from inferior vena cava to the liver? (in a fetus)
ductus venosus
what does ductus venosus become after birth?
ligamentum venosum
where does most of the blood from the aorta (in a fetus) pass to?
-heart
-head
-upper limbs
does any blood go to the inactive lungs of a fetus?
yes, from the pulmonary aa.
where does ductus arteriosus connect?
distal part of the aortic arch
what does ductus arteriosus become after birth?
ligamentum arteriosum
what do the umbilical aa of a fetus branches of?
internal iliac aa
where does the blood from the umbilical aa (of a fetus) travel to, and through what branches?
-lower limbs
-abdominal/pelvic viscera

-branches of the aorta
what do umbilical aa become after birth?
medial umbilical ligaments
how many "walls" does the pericardium sac have?
two
what does the pericardium enclose?
-heart
-great vessels
how many layers are on the parietal pericardium?
2
what are the layers of the parietal pericardium made out of?
-outer layer - fibrous
-inner layer - serous
visceral pericardium is also know as....
epicardium
what are the layers of visceral pericardium made of?
serous only
what are the 4 chambers of the heart?
-2 atria
-2 ventricles
what are the 3 surfaces of the heart?
-anterior
-diaphragmatic
-posterior ("base")
what are the 4 borders of the heart?
-left border
-right border
-superior border
-inferior border
where does the right border of the heart run?
vertically along costal cartilages 3-6
where does the left border of the heart run?
-from apex upward
-medially to the articulation between 2nd costal cartilage and sternum
where does the superior border of the heart run?
behind the sternal angle
where does the inferior border of the heart run?
-horizontally from inferior end of right border
-behind xiphisternal junction to apex
when a person is standing, is the heart higher or lower in the chest?
slightly lower
what is the smooth part of the inside of the R. atrium marked by?
fossa ovalis
foramen ovale in the R. atrium becomes...
fossa ovalis
what in the R. atrium is assosiated with the openings?
-superior vena cava
-inferior vena cava
-coronary sinus
what texture is the anterior part of the inside of the R. atrium?
rough walled
what is on the inside of the wall of the R. atrium?
-musculi pectinati
-crista terminalis
what is the landmark for the SA node?
crista terminalis
what is located on the anterior wall of the R. atrium?
tricuspid / right AV orifice
what are the "irregular muscle bundles" of the heart?
papillary m.
where are papillary muscles attached, and how are they attached?
-cusps of the tricustpid and bicuspid valves
-cordae tendinae
where is the tricuspid valve located in the heart?
the R. ventricle
what is the function of papillary mm?
stabalize tricuspid valve to help prevent regurgitation of blood back into right atrium during systole
during contractions, how does blood leave the R. ventricle?
via the valve of the pulminary trunk (AKA pulminary valve)
what forms the posterior base of the heart?
the L. atrium
where do the 4 pulminary veins empty?
the L. atriumq
what kind of blood the the 4 pulminary veins bring to the heart?
oxygenated blood
what thickness walls does the L. ventricle have?
thick walls
what is the L. ventricle responsible for?
pumping blood into system circulation
where is trabeculae carnae located in the heart?
R. and L. ventricles
are papillary muscles located in the ventricles or the atria?
ventricles
what marks the entrance to the L. Ventricle?
the bicuspid valve
which valve "guards the exit"?
aortic valve
what is the function of the aortic valve?
close to prevent regurgitation from distended aortic arch back into L. ventricle during distole
what is the name for a "pathological narrowing if L. AV orifice"?
mitral stenosis
mitral stenosis can lead to:
-increased pressure in L. atrium
-pulmonary congestion
the coronary aa arise from what a., and where?
-root of aorta
-at R. and L. aortic sinuses
where does the right coronary a. travel into?
coronary sulcus
what does the R. coronary supply?
R. atrium and R. ventricle
what does the R. coronary artery anastamose with, and where?
-circumflex branch of left coronary artery
-posterior aspect of the heart
what does the L. coronary artery branch into?
-circumflex branch
-desending branch
where does the circumflex branch of the L. coronary artery "pass"?
passes over the left margin of the heart to reach the posterior aspect
where does the decending branch of the L. coronary artery "pass"?
passes downward along the interventricular groove
what does the L. coronary a. supply?
L. atrium and L. ventricle
what does disruption of blood flow in heart cause?
ischemia
what can ischemia of the heart lead to?
necrosis
-dearth of part of heart tissue that doesn't have adequite circulation
the area of myocardium that has undergone necrosis is an _____.
infarct
what does the Great Cardiac Vein run with, and then what does it continue with?
-L. anterior decending a.
(LAD)
-continues alongside the circumflex branch of the L. coronary artery
what does the middle cardiac vein run with?
posterior interventricular a.
what does the Small Cardiac Vein run with, and hten what does it continue with?
-marginal branch of R. coronary a. (at anterior aspect of heart)
-continues posteriorly alongside R. coronary artery
where does blood from the cardiac veins empty, and where does that empty?
-coronary sinus
-R. atrium
the SA node is called the _____ of the heart
pacemaker
how is the normal resting pace (60-70 b/min) increased?
sympathetic stiumlation
how is the normal resting pace (60-70 b/min) decreased or stopped?
vagal stimulation
where is the AV node located?
posteroinferior part of the interatrial septum
the AV node is impulsed from where?
both atria
where does the AV node distribute its impulses to?
the AV bundle
where is the AV bundle located?
interventricular septum
AV bundle divides into:
L. and R. bundle branches
how do impulses to the bundle branches travel?
rapidly to apex, ventricles contract from apex upward, squeezing blood out
where else do the impulses of the AV bundle travel?
papillary muscles
what do the papillary mm. do with the impulses received from the AV bundle?
prepare early, pull on AV cusps, stabalizing them and preventing their eversion during systole
why is it difficult to distinguish sound of closing of each valve?
they lie behind the sternum and are grouped close together
what is a PMI?
-points of maximum intensity
-best locations to hear each valve
what is the "lub" sound (first sound) of the heart, and when does it close?
-when the AV valves close
-early in systole
where is the bicuspid valve ausculated?
superficial to apex of heart, in 5th intercostal space
where is the tricuspid valve ausculated?
left 1/2 of inferior end of body of sternum
what is "dub" sound (second sound) of the heart, and when does it close?
-the aortic and pulmonary valves close
-end of systole, when pressure is high in aortic arch and pulmonary trunk
where is the aortic valve ausculated?
right edge of sternum, at 2nd intercostal space (just inferior to sternal angle)
where is the pulmonary valve ausculated?
left edge of sternum at 2nd intercostal space
what is a murmer?
changes in heart sounds
what deficiency makes a "luff-dub" noise, and where is it heard?
-bicuspid valve deficiency
-heard in apex
what dificiency makes a "lub-duff" noise, and where is it heard?
-aortic valve deficiency
-heard at right edge of sternum at 2nd intercostal space