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1857 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Draw table of how the body's cavities are divided up
see notes
What are the (2)major division of the body cavites?
(1)ventral body cavity
(2)dorsal body cavity
NAME
this has two cavties: ventral body and dorsal body cavity
body cavities
What separates the thoraic cavity and the abdominopelivic cavity?
the diaphragm
the diaphragm separates these two cavities (2)
(1)thoracic cavity (2)abdominopelvic cavity
What are the (2)different divisions of the ventral body cavity?
(1)thoracic (2)abdominopelvic cavity
NAME
this has two divisions: the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
ventral body cavity
What are the different subdivisions of the thoracic cavity? (3)
(1)right pleural cavity (2)mediastinum (3)left plerual cavity
NAME
this has three subdivisions: right pleural cavity, mediastinum, and left plerual cavity
thoarcic cavity
NAME
this also contains the pericardial cavity
mediastinum
The mediastinum also contains the (1)
pericardial cavity
The (1)also contains the pericardial cavity
mediastinum
The (1) is also called the coelom
ventral body cavity
The ventral body cavity is also called the (1)
coelom
What are the functions of the ventral body cavity? (3)
it provides protection (2) allows organ movement (3) it's lining prevents friction
NAME
this provides protection, allows for organ movement, and its lining prevents friction
ventral body cavity
What is the thoracic cavity?
it is surrounded by the chest wall and the diaphragm
NAME
this is surrounded by the chest wall and the diaphragm
thoracic cavity
What is the abdominopelvic cavity?
contains the peritioneal cavity
NAME
this contains the peritioneal cavity
abdominopelivic cavity
What is the differ btwn the thoracic and the abdominopelvic cavity?
(1)thoracic cavity surrounds the chest wall and diaphragm (2)contains the pertioneal cavity
What are the (2) divisions of the dorsal body cavity?
(1)cranial (2)spinal cavity
NAME
this has two divisions: the cranial and the spinal cavity
dorsal body cavity
What are the two divisions of the abdominopelvic cavity? (2)
(1)abdominal cavity (2)pelivic cavity
NAME
this has two divisions: the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
abdominopelvic cavity
What is the right pleural cavity?
surrounds the right lung
NAME
this surrounds the right lung
right pleural cavity
What is the mediastinum?
contains the trachea, esophagus, and major vessels
NAME
this contains the trachea, esophagus and major vessels
mediastinum
What is the left pleural cavity?
surrounds the left lung
NAME
this surrounds the left lung
pleural cavity
What is the differ btwn the right pleural cavity and the left pleural cavity?
(1)the right pleural cavity surrounds the right lung
(2)the left pleural cavity surrounds the left lung
What is the pericardial cavity?
surrounds the heart
NAME
this surrounds the heart
pericardial cavity
What is the dorsal body cavity?
cushions and protects the CNS
NAME
this cushions and protects the CNS
dorsal body cavity
NAME
this contains the brain, cerebellum and brain stem
cranial cavity
The dorsal is usally (1)
posterior
The (1)is usall posterior
dorsal
The ventral is usally (1)
anterior
The (1)is usally anterior
ventral
T or F
This applies for all parts of the body, dorsal is posterior and ventral is anterior
false
What is the only exception for the saying that dorsal is posterior and ventral is anterior?
from the head up
From the (1)down, dorsal is posterior and ventral is anterior
head
What is the cranial cavity?
contains the brain, cerebellum and brain stem
NAME
this contains the brain, cerebellum and brain stem
cranial cavity
Work on the packet of pictures
see back for answers
What is the spinal cavity?
contains the spinal cord
NAME
this contains the spinal cord
spinal cavity
What is the abdominal cavity?
contains many digestive glands and organs
NAME
this contains many digestive glands and organs
abdominal cavity
NAME
this contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and the last portion of digestive tract
pelvic cavity
What is the differ btwn the pelvic cavity and the abdominal cavity?
(1)abdominal cavity-contains the digestive glands and organs
(2)pelvic cavity-contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and last portion of digestive tract
What is regional anatomy?
study of the body by parts or regions
NAME
this is the study of the body by different parts or regions
regional anatomy
What is systemtic anatomy?
is the study of the body by systems
NAME
this is the study of the body by systems
systemtic anatomy
T orF
None of the organ systems functions in isolation
true
what is the inteugmentary system?
consists of the skin and appendages such as the hair, and nails
NAME
this consists of the skin, and appendages such as the hair and nails
integumentary system
What kind of organ is the integumentray system?
an extensive sensory organ
NAME
this is a extensive sensory organ that forms a protective covering for the body
integumentary system
What is the skeletal system?
consists of bone and cartilage
NAME
this consists of bone and cartilage
skeletal system
The skeletal system provides (1) for the body and (2)
support (2)protects vital organs
NAME
this system provides support and protects vital organs
skeletal system
The musclular system acts on the (1) to produce movemnt
skeletal system
How does the muscular system act on the skeletal system?
by it produces movment
What is the articular system?
it connects the bony parts of the skeletal system and provides sites at which movement occurs
NAME
this connects the bony parts of the skeletal system and provides sites at which movement occurs
articular system
What does the articular system consist of?
joints and thier associated ligaments
NAME
this consists of joints and thier associated ligaments
articular system
What is the musclular system?
is composed of muscles that contract to move or postion parts of the body
NAME
this is composed of muscles that contract to move or postion parts of the body
muscular system
What is the nervous system?
consists of the CNS and the peripheral nervous system
NAME
this consists of the CNS and the peripheral nervous system
nervous system
What is the CNS?
the brain and the spinal cord
NAME
this is the brain and the spinal cord
CNS
What is the peripheral nervous system?
the nerves and ganglia together with thier motor endings
NAME
this is the nerves and ganglia together with thier motor endings
peripheral nervous system
What is dermatology?
the study of the integumentary system
NAME
this is the study of the integumentary system
dermatology
What is osteology?
is the study of the skeletal system
NAME
this is the study of the skeletal system
osteology
What is the arthrology?
is the study of the articular system
NAME
this is the study of the articular system
arthrology
What is myology?
is the study of the muscular system
NAME
this is the study of the muscular system
myology
What is neurology?
is the study of the nervous system
NAME
this is the study of the nervous system
neurology
What is angiology ?
is the study of the ciculatory system
NAME
this is the study of the ciculatory system
angiology
What is the circulatory system?
consists of the cardiovascular and lympathtic systems which function in parell to distrubute fluids through the body
NAME
this consists of the cardiovascular and lympathic systems which function in parell to distrubute fluids though the body
circulatory system
What are (2) systems is the circulatory system divided up into?
(1)cardiovascular system (2)lympathic system
NAME
this is divided up into the cardiovasuclar system and the lympathic system
circulatory system
What is cardiology?
the study of the cardiovascular system
NAME
this is the study of the cardiovascular system
cardiology
What is the cardiovascular system?
consists of the haert and blood vessels that propel and conduct the blood through the body
NAME
this consists of the heart and blood vessels that propel and conduct the blood through the body
cardiovascular system
What is the lympathic system?
is a network of lympathic vessels that withdraws excess tissue fluid (lymph)from the body's interstitial fluid compartment, filters it through the lymphh nodes, and returns it to the blood stream
NAME
this is a network of lympathic vessels that withdrwas excess tissue fluid from the body's intersitial fluid compartment, filters it through the lymph nodes and returns it to the blood stream
lympathic system
The digestive system is als ocalled the (1)
alimentary system
The (1) is also called the alimentary system
digestive
What is gastroenterology?
is the study of the digestive system
NAME
this is the study of the digestive system
gastroenterology
What is the digestive system?
consists of organs and glands associatedw the ingestion, mastication, deglution, digestion, and absorption of foods, and the elimination of wastes after the nutrients have been absorbed
NAME
this consists of organs and glands associatedw the ingestion, mastication, deglution, digestion, and absorption of foods, and the elimination of wastes after the nutrients have been absorbed
digestive system
What is pulmonology?
is the study of the respiratory sysem
NAME
this is the study of the respiratory system
pulmonology
What is the respiratory system?
consists of the air passages and lungs that supply oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide
NAME
this consists of air passages and lungs that supply oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide
respiratory system
What is urinary system?
filters the blood and subsequently produce, transport, store and excrete liquid waste
NAME
this filters the blood and subsequently produce, transport, store and excrete liquid waste
urinary system
What does the urinary system consist of? (4)
(1)kidneys (2)ureters, (3)urinary bladder (4)urethra
NAME
this consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and the urethra
urinary system
What is the endocrine system?
consists of discrete ductless glands that sercrete hromones
NAME
this consists of discrete ductless glands that sercrete hormones
endocrine system
Hormone are distrubed by the (1)
cardiovascular system
What is clinical anatomy?
empahzies aspects of structure and function of the body imporatnt in the practice of medicine, dentistry and the allied health sciences
NAME
this empahzies aspects of structure and function of the body imporatnt in the practice of medicine, dentistry and the allied health sciences
clinical anatomy
Clinical anatomy can also be called (1)anatomy
applied
(1)can also be called applied anatomy
clinical
What is the anatomical postion? (4)
(1)head, eyes, and toes directed anteriorly (2)upper limbs by sides w palms facing anteriorly (3)lower limbs close together w feet parallel and the toes directed anteriorly
NAME
this includes head, eyes, and toes directed anteriorly, upper limbs by sides w palm facing anteriorly, lower limbs close together w fee parallel
anatomical postion
the median plane is also called the (1)
median sagittal plane
The (1)is also called the median sagittal plane
median plane
the frontal plane is also called the (1)
coronal planes
the (1)is also called the coronal plane
frontal plane
the saggital plane is also called the (1)
vertical plane
the (1)is also called the vertical plane
saggital
the horizontal plane is also called the (1)and (2)
tranverse and axial plane
The horizontal plane is also called the (1) and axial plane
tranverse
the horizontal plane is also called the tranverse and (1)plane
axial
The (1)plane is also called the tranverse and axial plane
horizontal
What is the median plane?
divdes the body into left and right vertical halves from the middle of the body
NAME
this divudes the body into left and right vertical halves from the middle of the body
median plane
What is the sagital plane?
divides the body into left and right vertical halves but does not use the middle of the body as the center
NAME
this divides the body into the left and right vertical halves but does not use the middle of the body as the center
sagittal plane
What is the differ btwn the median and the sagittal plane?
(1)Sagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves but does not use hte middle of the body as the center (2)median plane divides the body into left and right vertical halves from the middle of the body
What is the frontal plane?
divdes the body into anterior and posteior halves
NAME
this divides the body into anterior and posterior halves
frontal planes
What is the tranverse plane?
divides the body into 2 horizontal halves
NAME
this plane divides the body up into 2 horizontal halves
tranverse plane
What is the oblique plane?
is any plane that is diagonal
NAME
this is any plane that is diagnoal
oblique plane
What does bilateral mean?
means that 2 of the same structures are present on both sides of the body
NAME
this means that 2 of the same structures are present on both sides othe body
bilateral
What does unilateral mean?
it means that the 2 same structure are present on one side of the body
NAME
this means that 2 of the same structures are present on one side of the body
unilateral
What is the differ btwn unilateral and bilateral? (2)
(1)bilateral means taht 2 of the same structures are present on both sides of the body (2)unilateral means that 2 of the same structures are present on one side of the body
What does ipsilateral mean?
it means that there are 2 different structures present on both sides of the body
NAME
this means that there are 2 different structures present on both sides of the body
ipsilateral
What does contralateral mean?
it means that there are 2 different structures present on one side of the body
NAME
this means that there are 2 different structures present on one side of the body
contralateral
What is the differ btwn contralateral and ipsilateral?
(1)contralateral-means taht there are 2 different structures present on one side of the body
(2)ipsilateral means that there are 2 different structures present on both sides of the body
What is a example of contralateral
the liver and the spleen
NAME
a example of this is the liver and the spleen
contralateral
Give a example of bilateral?
the hands and knee caps
NAME
a example of this is the hands and the kneecaps
bilateral
Give a example of ipsilateral?
the liver and gallbladder
nAME
a example of this is the liver and the gallbladder
ipsilateral
What does inferomedial mean?
it means nearer to the feet and closer to the median plane
NAME
this means nearer to the feet and closer to the median plane
inferomedial
What is superolateral?
mean nearer to the head and farther from the median plane
NAME
this means nearer to the head and farther from the median plane
superlateral
NAME
this is the largest organ of the body
skin
the skin is the (1)of the body
largest
What are some functions of the skin? (5)
(1)protection for the body from environmental effects such as abrasions and harmful substances (2)containment of of tissues, organs, and vital substances of the body preventing dehydration (3)heat regulation through sweat glands, blood vessels, and fat deposists (4)sensation by way of superficial nerves and thier sensory endings (5)synthesis and storage of vitamin D
NAME
some of its functions include protection for the body from evironmental effects such as abrasions and harmful substances, containment of tissues, organs, and vital subsances of the body preventing dehydration, heat regulation through sweat glands, blood vessels, and fat deposists, sensation by way of superficial nerves and thier sensory endings, and synthesis and storage of vitamin D
inegumentary system
Superior is also called (1)
cranial
(1)is also called cranial
superior
Inferior is also called (1)
caudal
(1)is also called caudal
inferior
anterior is also called (1)
ventral
(1)is also called ventral
anterior
posterior is also called (1)
dorsal
(1)is also called dorsal
posterioe
What is superior?
means that the structure is nearer to the head
NAME
this means that the structure is nearer to the head
superior
What does inferior mean?
it means that the structure is nearer to the feer
NAME
this means that the structure is nearer to the feet
inferior
What is the differ btwn inferior and superior?
(1)inferior means that the structure is nearer to the head (2)superior means that the structure is near to the feet
What does anterior mean?
the structure is near to the front
nAME
this means that the structure is near to the front
anterior
What does posterior mean?
that the structure is nearer to the back
NAME
this means that the structure is near to the back
posterior
What is the differ btwn anterior and posterior?
(1)anterior means that the structure is nearer to the front (2)posterior means that the structure is nearer to the back
What is medial?
means that the structure is nearer to the median plane
NAME
this means that the structure is nearer to the median plane
medial
What does lateral mean?
it means that the structure is farther from the median plane
NAME
this means that the structure is frather from the median plane
lateral
What is the differ btwn lateral and medial?
(1)lateral means that the structure is farther from the median plane (2)medial mean that the structure is nearer to the median plane
What does proximal mean?
means that the structure is nearer to the trunk or point of orgin
NAME
this means that the structure is nearer to the trunk or point of orgin
proximal
What does distal mean?
it means that the structure is farther away from the point of orgin
NAME
this means that the structure is farther away from the point of the orgin
distal
WHat is the differ btwn the proximal and distal? (2)
(1)proximal the structure is nearer to the trunk or point of origin (2)distal the structure is farther to the trunk or point of orgin
What does superficial mean?
that the structure is nearer to the surface
NAME
this means that the structure is nearer to the surface
superficial
What does deep mean?
it means that the structure is farther from the surface
nAME
this means that hte structure is farther from the surface
deep
What is the differ btwn deep and superfical?
(1)superficial-means that the structure is nearer to the surface (2)deep means that the structure is farther away from the surface
the heart is (1) to the stomach
superior
The stomach is (1)to the heart
inferior
the sternum is (1)to the heart
anterior
the kidneys are (1)to the intestine
posterior
the fifth digit(little finger) is on the (1)side of the hand
medial
first digit (thumb)is on the (1)side of the hand
lateral
the elbow is (1)to the wrist
proximal
the wrist is (1)to the elbow
distal
the (1)part of the lower limb is the foot
distal
Muscles of the arm are (1)to its bone
superficial
the humerus is (1)to arm muscles
deep
viens are visisble in the (1)of the hand
dorsum
What is the dorsum?
refers to the dorsal or posterior surface of the hand or foot
NAME
this refers to the dorsal or posterior surface of the hand or foot
dorsum
What is the palm?
refers to the palmar surface of the hand
NAME
this refers to th palamer surface of the hand
palm
What does the sole mean?
refers to the plantar surface of the foot
NAME
this is the plantar surface of the foot
sole
the skin creases are visible on the (1)
palm
the skin is thick on the (1)of the foot
sole
What is the epidermis?
is the outer layer of skin
NAME
this is the outer layer of skin
epidermis
What kind of tissue makes of the epidermis?
keratinzed strafied epithelium
NAME
this skin layer is made up of keratinzed strafied epithelium
epidermis
What kind of cells can be found in the epidermis?
(1)meloncytes (2)keratin
NAME
in this cell layer meloncytes and kertain can be found here
epidermis
What is the dermis?
the middle layer of skin
NAME
this is the middle layer of skin
dermis
What can be found in the dermis? (5)
(1)skin glands (2)hair follicles (3)papillae ridges (4)elastic fibers (5)collagen
NAME
this layer of skin contains skin glands, hair follicles, papillae ridges, elastic fibers, and collagen
dermis
How is the epidermis nourished?
it is avasuclar and nourished by vessels in the dermis
NAME
this layer of skin is nourished by the dermis and is avascular
epidermis
The epdermis is nourished by underlying vessels in the (1)
dermis
Is the epidermis vascular or avascular?
avascular
What does avascular mean?
it means that there are no blood vessels or lympatics present
NAME
this means that there are no blood vessels or lymapthics present
avascular
NAMe the layer of skin in order (3)
(1)epidermis (2)dermis (3)hypodermis
NAME
this has three layers: epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
skin
What do elastic fiber account for in the dermis?
they provide the skin tone and the strenght and toughness assocaited w the skin
NAME
this can be found in the dermis and provide the skin with it skin tone and the strenght and toughness associated w the skin
elastic fibers
What does hypodermis mean?
it means underskin and bottom most layer of the skin
NAME
this means underskin and is the bottom most layer of the skin
hypodermis
What determine tension lines and wrinkles in the skin?
the pattern of collagen fibers in a particular region
the pattern of collagen fibers in a particular region determines the (1)and (2)in the skin
tension line and wrinkles
What causes goose bumps?
contraction of arrector muscles
NAME
this results when the arrector muscles contract
good bumps
What happens when the arrector muscles contract?
they erect hair thereby compresing the sebaecous glands and helping them secrete thier oily product onto thier skin
NAME
these erect hair therebay compressing the sebaecous glands and helping them to secrete thier oily products onto the skin
arrecotor muscles
What is subcutaneous tissue?
is composed of loose connective tissue and fat
NAME
this is composed of loose connective tissue and fat
subcutaneous tissue
The subcutaneous tissue is also called the (1)
superficial fascia
The (1) is also called the superficial fascia
subcutaneous tissue
the (1)contains the deepest part of the sweat glands
subcutaneous tissue
the subcutaneous tissue contain the (1)
deepest part of the sweat glands
What is the main function of subcutaneous tissue?
to provide most of the body's fat storage
NAME
the main function of this is to provide the most of the body's fat storage
subcutaneous tissue
What are skin ligaments?
consist of numerous small fibrous bands that extend through the subcutaneous tissue and attach the deep surface of the dermis to the underlying deep fascia
NAME
these consist of numerous fibrous bands that extend through the subcutaneous tissue and attach to the deep surface of the dermis to the underlying deep fascia
skin liagaments
What is the deep fascia?
is a dense organized connective tissue layer devoid of fat that envelopes most of the body deep to the skin and subcutaneous tissue
NAME
this is a deep organized connective tissue layer devoid of fat that envelopes most of the body deep to the skin and subcutaneous tissue
deep fascia
What are some externsions from the internal surface of the deep fascia? (3)
(1)investing fasica (2)musclular septa (3)subserous fascia
NAME
some of its extensions from its internal surface include the investing fascia, muscular septa, and subserous fascia
deep fascia
What is the investing fascia?
it invests deeper structures such as invidual muscles and neurovascular bundles
NAME
this invests deeper structures such as invidual muscles and neurovascular bundles
investing fascia
What is the intermusclular septa?
divides muscles into groups or compartments
NAME
this divides muscles into compartments or groups
intermusclar septa
What is the subserous fascia?
it lies between the musculoskeletal walls and the serous membrane lining body cavities
NAME
this lies btwn the musculoskeletal walls and the serous membrane lining body cavities
subserous fascia
What is the retinacula?
holds tendons in place during movement
NAME
this hold tendons in place during movement
retinacula
the deep fascia also forms the (1) and (2)
(1)retinacula (2)bursae
NAME
this also forms the retinacula and the bursae
deep fascia
What is a bursae?
are close sac containing fluid
NAME
these are closed sacs containing fluid
bursae
What does the bursae do?
helps prevent friction and enables structures to move freely over over another
NAME
this helps to prevent friction and enables structures to move freely over and over another
bursae
What are fascial planes?
are potential spaces btwn adjacent fascia or fascia lined strucures
NAME
these are potential spaces btwn adjacent fascia or fascia lined structures
fascial planes
During operations, surgeons take advantage of (1)to create actual spaces that allow acess to deeply placed structures
facial planes
What is the axial skeleton made up of?
bones of the (1)head (2)neck (3)trunk
NAME
this consists of the bones of the head, neck, and trunk
axail skeleton
What is the appendicular skeleton made up of ?
bones of the limbs including thos forming the shoulder and pelvic gridles
NAME
this consists of the bones of the limbs including those forming the shoulder and pelvic gridles
appendicular skeleton
What is the differ btwn the axial and appendicular skeleton?
(1)axial consists of the bones of the head, neck, and trunk (2)appendicular skeleton- consists of the bones of the limbs including those of the shoulder and pelvic gridles
What are the two main parts of the skeleton system? (2)
(1)axial (2)appendicular
What is abduction?
means moving away from the median plane of the body in the frontal plane
NAME
this means moving away from the median plane of the body in the frontal plane
abduction
What is adduction?
means moving toward the median plane of the body in the frontal plane
NAME
this means moving toward the medain plane of the body in the frontal plane
adduction
What is the differ btwn adduction and abduction?(2)
(1)abduction means moving away from the median plany of the body in the frontal plane (2)adduction means moving toward the median plane of the body in the frontal plane
What is rotation?
half a circle movement
NAME
is like half a circle movement
rotation
What kind of rotation movements are there? (2)
medial (2)lateral
What is medial rotation?
is turning in
NAME
this type of rotation starts by turning in
medial rotation
What is lateral roatation?
is turning away from the midline
NAME
this type of rotation starts by turning away from the midline
lateral rotation
What type of movement is circumduction?
combo of all movements
NAME
this is combo of all the different types of movement
circumduction
What type of movements do you go through during circumduction? (4)
(1)flexion (2)extension (3)abduction (4)adduction
NAME
this includes a combo of these movments: flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
circumduction
What is supination?
is the rotation of the hand starting palm side up
NAME
this is the rotation of the hand starting plam side up
supination
What is pronation?
is the rotation of the hand starting palm side down
NAME
this is the rotation of the hand starting palm side down
pronation
What is the differ btwn pronation and subination?
(1)pronation is the rotation of the hand palm side down (2)supination is the rotation of the hand palm side up
What is eversion?
means turning the sole of the foot outward
NAME
this is turning hte sole of the foot outward
eversion
What is inversion?
think i for turning the foot inward.......it means turning the foot inward
NAME
this means turning the foot inward
inversion
What is the differ btwn eversion and inversion?
(1)eversion means turning the sole of the foot outward (2)inversion means turning the sole of the foot inward
What is protrusion?
means moving the jaw anteriorly or sticking the jaw out
NAME
this means moving the jaw anteriorly or sticking it out
protrusion
What is retrusion?
means moving the jaw posteriorly or inward
NAME
this means moving the jaw posteriorly or inward
retrusion
What is the differ btwn retrusion and protrusion?
(1)retrusion means moving the jaw posteriorly or inward (2)protrusion means moving the jaw anteriorly or sticking it out
What is elevation?
is raising or moving a part superiorly
NAME
this is raising or moving a part superiorly
elevation
What is depression?
is lowering or moving a part inferiorly
nAME
this is lowering or moving a part inferiorly
depression
What is the differ btwn depression and elevation? (2)
(1)depression is lowering or moving a part inferiorly (2)elevation refers to raising or moving a part superiorly
What is flexion?
means increasing angle from distal to proximal
NAME
this means increasing the angle from distal to proximal
flexion
What does extension mean?
increasing the angle from proximal to distal
NAMe
this means increasing the angle from proximal to distal
extension
What is the differ btwn flexion and extension? (2)
(1)flexion means increasing hte angle from distal to proximal (2)extension means increasing the angle from distal to proximal
Tension lines in the skin keep the skin (1)
under tension
What kind of lacerations or surgical incisions are the best?
are ones that are parallel to the tensions lines heal w little scaring and do not disrubt the collagen fibers as much
Lacerations or surgical incisions that are (1)heal with little scaring bc they do not diurbt the collagen fibers
parallel to the tension lines
Incision or lacerations that are (1)cause the wound to gabe and heal w more scaring bc they disturbt the collagen fibers
across tension lines
Incisions or lacerations that are cut across tension lines cause wound to gabe and heal w more scaring bc they (1)
disrtubt collagen fibers
The collagen and elastic fibers of the dermis form a (1)of tissue
tought, flexible meshwork
The (1)and (2)of the dermis form a tough, flexible meshwork of tissue
collagen and elastic fibers
What are first degree burns?
is when the damage is limited to the superfical part of the epdirmis
NAME
this is when the damage is limited to the superfical part of the epidermis
first degree burn
What is second degree burns? (2)
is when the damage extends through the epidermis into the superfical part of the dermis* (2)however the only the except for thier superfical parts, the sweat glands and hair follicles are not damaged
NAME
this is when the damage extends through the epidermis into the superfical part of the dermis. However, except for the most superficial parts the sweat glands and hair follices are not damaged andcan provide a source of replacement for cells
second degree burns
What are third degree burns? (2)
is when the entire epidermis, dermis, and perhaps even the underlying muscle are damaged (2) A minor degree of healing my occur at edges but the open ulcerated portions require skin grafting
NAME
this is when the entire epidermis, dermis, and perhaps even the underlying muscle are damaged. A minor degree of healing my occur at edges but the open ulcerated portions require skin grafting
third degree burn
Which is more signigicant in esitmating the the effect of the burns on the vicitim, the extent of the burn or degree of the burn?
the extent of the burn
Which is more signigicant in esitmating the the effect of the burns on the vicitim, the extent of the burn or degree of the burn?
the extent of the burn
What is a bone?
is a living tissue that is highly specialized, hard form of connective tissue that makes up most of the skeleton and is the chief supporting tissue of the body
NAME
this is a living tissue that is a highly speacilized hard, form of connective tissue that makes up most of the skeleton and is the chief supporting tissue of the body
bone
What are some of the functions of the bones? (5)
(1)protection of vital structures (2)support of the body (3)the mechanical basis for movement (4)storage for salts (5)a continous supply of new blood cells
NAME
some of its functions include protection of vital structures, support of the body, the mechnical basis for the movement, storage for salts, and a continous supply of new blood cells
bones
What are produces red blood cells?
the bone marrow
the bone marrow produces (1)
red blood cells
NAME
this produces red blood cells
bone marrow
What is cartilage?
is a resilient, semirigid, asvascular form of connective tissue that forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibiltiy is necessary
NAME
this is a resilient,semirigid avascasular form of connective tisse that forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibility is necessary
cartilage
The articulating surfaces of bones particapting in a synovial joint are capped w (1)
articular cartialge
the articulating surfaces of bones particpating w (1)are capped w (1)
articular cartialge
What is articular cartilage?
provides smooth, low friction gliding surfaces for movement of the articulating bones
NAME
these provide smooth, low friction gliding surfaces for movement of the articulating bones
articular cartilage
Is cartialge avascualr or vascular?
avascular
How is cartilage nourished?
by diffusion
The bones of newborn infants are often (1)
soft and flexible bc they are mostly composed of cartialge
NAME
there bones are often soft and flexible bc they are mostly composed of cartialge
newborn infants
What is periosteum?
is fibrous connective tissue covering that surrounds bone
NAME
this is a fibrous connective tissue covering that surrounds the bone
peristeum
The younger a person, the greater the contribution of (1)
cartilage
What is pericheondrium?
surrounds cartilage elements excluding articular cartilage
NAME
this surrounds cartilage elements excluding articular cartilage
pericheondrium
What do both pericheodrium and periosteuim do? (3)
help nourish the tissue,(2)are capable of laying down more cartilage or bone (3)provide an interface for attachment of tendons and ligaments
NAME
these helps to nourish the tissue, are capable of laying down more cartilage or bones, and provide an interface for attachment of tendons and ligaments (2)
(1)periosteum (2)perichondrium
WHat are (2)types of bones?
(1)compact (2)spongy
NAME
this has 2 types: compact and spongy
bones
T or F
all bones have a superficial thin layer of compact bone around a central mass of spongy bone where the later is replacted by medullary cavity
true
all bones have a superficial thin layer of compact bone around a central mass of spongy bone where the later is replacted by (1)
medullary cavity
What are the different types of classes of bones? (5)
(1)long (2)short (3)flat (4)irregular (5)sesamoid
NAME
these include long, short, flat, irregular,and sesamoid
bones
NAME BONE CLASS
the humereus
long bone
NAME BONE CLASS
the phalanges in your fingers
long bone
Give some examples of long bones? (2)
(1)the humerus (2)the phalanges in your fingers
Give some examples of short bones (2)
ankle (tarss) (2)wrist (carpus)
What are short bones?
are cubodial and are found only in the ankle and the wrist
nAME
these are cubodial and are found only in the ankle and the wrist
short bones
Where is the only place that short bones are found? (2)
(1)ankle (2)wrist
What are flat bones?
they usally serve protective functions
NAME
this class of bone usally serve protective functions
flat bones
What are some examples of flat bones?
those of the cranium
NAME BONE CLASS
a examples of these are the bones in your cranium
flat
What are sesamoid bones?
they develop in certian tendons and protect the tendons from excessive wear and often change the angle of the tendons as they pass thier attachment
NAME
these develop in certain tendons and protect the tendons from excessive wear and often change the angle of the tendons as they pass thier attachment
sesamoid bones
What are some examples of sesamoid bones?
the patella
NAME BONE CLASS
the patella
sesamoid bones
What are heterotopic bones?
are bones that sometimes form in soft tissues where they are not normally present
nAME
these are bones that sometimes form in soft tissue where they are not normally present
heterotopic bones
(1)often develop heterotopic bones in thier thighs or buttock bc of chronic muscle strain in small hermorrhagic areas that undergo calcification and eventual ossifcation
horseback rides
horseback riders often develop (2) in thier thighs or buttock bc of chronic muscle strain in small hermorrhagic areas that undergo calcification and eventual ossifcation
heterotopic bones
What is mesenchyme?
is embryonic connective tissue
NAME
this is embryonic connective tissue
mesenchyme
All bones are dervied from (1)
mesenchyme
All (1)are derived from mesenchyme
bones
What are (2)ways that are bones derived from mesenchyme?
(1)intramembranous ossification (2)endochondral ossification
NAME
this occurs in two processes: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
bones from mesenchyme
What is intramembranous ossification?
is membranous bone formation during the fetal period
NAME
this is membranous bone formation during the fetal period
intramembranous ossification
What is endochondral ossification?
is when during the fetal period the cartilage is replaced by bones
NAME
this is when during the fetal period the cartialge is replaced by bone
endocondral ossification
What is compact bone?
is bone that is hard on the outside
NAME
this is bone that is hard on the outside
compact bone
What is spongy bone?
is bone that is soft on the inside
NAME
this is bone that is soft on the inside
spongy bone
What are (2)types of bones?
(1)compact (2)spongy
What is diaphysis?
the center of the bone
NAME
this is the center of the bone
diaphysis
What is metaphysis?
are growth plates or where bones grow
NAME
these are growth plates or where bones grow
metaphysis
Spongy bones are also called (1)
trabecule
(1)bones are also called trabecule
spongy bones
How many bones are in the body?
206
There are (1)bones in the body
206
What is atrophy?
refers to a decrease in size
NAME
this refers to a decrease in size
atrophy
What is hypertrophy?
refers to enlarging
NAME
this refers to enlarging
hypertrophy
Unused bones such as in paralized or immoblized limbs, may occur (1)
atrophy
(1)bones such as in(2) may cause atrophy
(1)Unused (2)paralized or immoblized
Bones (1)when they have increased weight to support for a long period
hypertrophy
What is osteoporisis?
is the atrophy of the skeletal tissue
NAME
this is atrophy of the skeletal tissue
osteoporis
Bones are richly supplied w (1) and (2)
(1)blood vessels (2)nerves
What the different arteries that supply the bones? (3)
(1)nutrient arteries (2)periosteal arteries (3)metaphysial and epiphysial arteries
NAME
this is supplied by the nutrient arteries, periosteal arteries, and metaphysial and epiphysial arteries
bones
What are nutrient arteries?
are vessels that supply the bone morrow, spongy bone, and deeper portions of the compact bone
NAME
these are the vessels that supply the bone marrow, spongy bone, and deeper portions of the compact bone
nutrient arteries
What are periosteal arteries?
are small branches of the periosteum that suppply most of the compact bone
NAME
these are small branches of the periosteum that supply most of the compact bone
periosteal arteries
What are metaphysial and epiphysial arteries/
supply the ends of the bones and mainly arise from the arerties that supply the joints
NAME
these supply the ends of the bones and mainly arise from the aerties that supply the joints
metaphysial and epiphysial arteries
In the bones, (1)accompany arteries through the nutrient foramina
arteries
in the bones, arteries accompany arteries through the (1)
nutrient foramina
the periosteum is rich w (1) and (2)
(1)nerves (2)lympathic vessels
the (1)of the bone is rich w nerves and lympathic vessels
periosteum
the periosteum is rich w (1) and (2)
nerves (2)lympathic vessels
What are some of the nervs found in the periosteum? (2)
(1)periosteal nerves
NAME
these type of nerves are found in the periosteum of the bone
periosteal nerves
What are periosteal nerves?
sensory nerves with pain fibers
NAME
these are sensory nerves with pain fibers
periosteal nerves
The periosteum is espically senstitive to (1)
tearing or tension
What are vasomotor nerves?
they are nerves in the bones that cause constriction or dilation of blood vessels, regulating blood flow through the bone marrow
NAME
these are nerves in the bones that cause constriction or dilation of the blood vessels, regulating blood flow through the bone marrow
vasomotor nerves
What are acessary bones?
are bones that dvelop when additonal ossification center appear and form extra bones
NAME
thesea re bones that develop when additional ossification centers appear and form extra bones
acessary bones
What is the main criteria for determining the age of a bones? (2)
(1)the appearance of calcifeid material in the diaphysis and/or epiphyes (2)the disappearnce of dark lines representing the epiphysial plate
the fusion of epiphyses w the diaphysis occurs 1-2 years earlier in (1)than (2)
(1)girls (2)boys
The fusion of (1)occurs 1-2 years earlier in girls than boys
fusion of epiphyses w the diaphysis
The fusion of the the epiphyses w the diaphysis occurs (1)in girls than boys
1-2 years earlier
What are avascular necrosis?
is the loss of blood supply to an epiphysis or othe parts of a bone resulting in the death of bone tissue
NAME
is the loss of blood supply to an epiphysis or othe parts of a bone resulting in the death of bone tissue
avascular necrosis
What are joints?
is an articulation or the place of union or junction btwn two or more rigid components
NAME
this is an articulation or the place of union or junction btwn two or more rigid components
joint
What are (3)types of joints?
(1)fibrous joints (2)cartilaginous joints (3)synovial joints
NAME
there are three types of these: fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
joints
What are fibrous joints?
are articulating bones are joined by fibrous tissue
NAME
these are articulating bones are joined by fibrous tissue
fibrous joint
What are (2)types of fibrous joints?
(1)syndemosis (2)gomphosis
NAME
there are 2 types of this joint: syndemosis and gomphosis
fibrous joints
What are syndemosis?
is a type of fibrous joint that unties the bones w sheet of fibrous tissue either a ligament or fibrous membrane
What determines the amount of movment for fibrous joints?
the legnth of the fibers uniting the articular bones
NAME
this is a fibrous joint that unties the bones w a sheet of fibrout issue either a ligament or fibrous membrane
syndemosis
Describe the movement of syndemosis joint
there is partial movement
NAME
this syndemosis joint has partial movement
syndemosis joint
What is gomphsis?
is a type of fibrous joint in which a peg like fibrous process stablizies a tooth and provides proprioceptive iformation
NAME
is a type of fibrous joint in which a peg like fibrous process stablizies a tooth and provides proprioceptive iformation
gomphosis
What are cartilaginous joints?
are articulating bones that are untied by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage
NAME
these are articulating bones that are untied by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage
cartilaginous joints
What (2) types of cartilaginous joints?
(1)primary cartilaginous (2)secondary cartilaginous
What are primary cartilaginous joints?
are jointed untied by hyaline cartilage
NAME
these are joints united by hyaline cartilage
primary cartiliginous joints
Primary cartilaginous joints are also called (1)
synchondroses
(1)are also called synchondroses
primary cartilaginous joints
What are synchondroses do?
permit growth of the length of the bone and allow slight bending during early life until the epiphysial plate converts to bone the epiphyses fuse w the diaphysis
NAME
these permit growth of the length of the bone and allow slight bending during early life until the epipysial plate converts to bone the epiphyses fuse w the diaphysis
synchondroses
secondary cartilaginous joints are also called the (1)
symphyses
(1)are also called the symphyses
secondary cartilaginous joints
What are symphyses?
are strong slightly mobile joints united by fibrocartilage
NAME
these are strong, slightly mobile joints united by fibrocartilage
symphyses
What is the differ btwn symphyses and synchondroses?
(1)synchondroses are united by hyaline cartilage (2)symphyses are strong slightly mobel joints united by fibrous cartilage
What are synovial joints?
is when two bones are separated by the characteristic joint cavity containing synovial fluid but are joined by an articular capsule
NAME
this is when two bones are separated by the characteristic joint cavity containing synovial fluid are joined by an aritcular capsule
synovial joints
What does synovial fluid do in synovial joints? (2)
(1)nourishes the articular cartilage (2)lubricating the joint surfaces
NAME
this nourishes the aritcular cartilage and lubriacates the joint surface
synovial fluid
Synovial joints are the most (1) and (2)
common and important type of joints
NAME
these are the most common and important type of joints
synovial joints
What do synovial joints do?
they provide free movement btwn the bones they join
NAME
these provide free movement btwn the bones they join
synovial joints
Where do joints get there blood from?
articular arteries
joints get there blood from (1)
articular arteries
Joints are rich in (1)
nerve supply
Joints are rich in (10
nerve supply
T or F
joints are not rich in nerve supply
false
What articular nerves?
are branches of cutaneous nerves supplying the underlying skin
NAME
these are branches of cutaneous nerves supplying the underlying skin
articular nerves
Synovail joints are designed to (1)
withstand wear
NAME
these type of joints are designed to withstand wear
synovial joints
Heavy use of the synovial joints can cause (1)over the years
degenration
Which synovial joints tend to degenerate the most from wear tear? (4)
(1)hip (2)knee (3)verebral collumn (4)hands
NAME
these joints tend to degenerate espically in the hip, knee, verebral column, and the hands
synovial joints
(1)are numerous in the fibrous layer of the joints
pain fibers
When joints degenerate they become (1)
less effective as a shock absorber and are easier to break
NAME
this is common in older people and usally affects joints that support the weight ot their bodies
osteoarthitis
(1)and (2)is often accompanied by stiffness, discomfort and pain
degenerative joint disease and osteoarthtis
Degenerative joint disease and osteoarttis are often accomanied by (1)
stiffness, discomfort and pain
Osteoarthritis is common in (1)and usally affects the joints that(2)
(1)older people (2)support the weight of thier bodies
What is proprioception?
is information that provides an awareness of movement and postion of the parts of the body
NAME
is information that provides an awareness of movement and postion of the parts of the body
proprioception
Joints transmit a sensation called (1)
proprioception
(1)transmit a sensation called proprioception
joints
Muscle cells are often called (1)
muscle fibers
(1)are often called muscle fibers
muscle cells
Describe muscle fibers
they are long and narrow when they are relaxed and are speaclized contractile cells
NAME
these are long and narrow when they are relaxed and are speacilized contractile cells
muscle fibers
What are some functions of muscles? (3)
(1)movement (2)give the body form (3)provide heat
NAME
these provide movement, give the body form, and provide heat
muscles
What are (3)types of muscles?
(1)skeletal muscles (2)cardiac muscles (3)smooth muscles
NAME
these include skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
musclse
What are skeletal muscles?
they move bones and other structures
NAME
these muscles move bones and other structures
skeletal
What are cardiac muscles?
are muscles that form most of the walls of the heart and adjacent paths of the great vessels
NAME
these are muscles that form most of the walls of the heart and adjacent paths of great vessels
cardiac muscles
What are smooth muscles? (3)
they form part of the walls of most vessels and hollow organs
NAME
these muscles form part of the walls of most vessels and hollow organs, help to move subtsances through viscrea such as the intestines, and controls movement through blood vessels
smooth muscles
All skeletal muscles have a (1)and (2)
(1)felshy contractile portion (2)a white non-conrtactile portion
What do all skeleta muscls have in common? (2)
they have a fleshy contractile portion (2)a white non-contractile portion
What is the fleshy contractile prtion of skeletal muscles composed of?
skeletal striated muscles
The (1)of skeletal muscles is composed of skeletal striated muscles
fleshy contractile portion
What is the the white non-contractile portion of skeletal muscles composed of?
mainly of collagen bundles
NAME
all of these types of muscles have fleshy contractile protion and a white-noncontractile portion composed maily of collagen bundles
skeletal muscles
How are most skeletal muscles attached?
indirectly or directly by
tendons and aponeuroses to bones, ligaments, cartilages, or fascia or some other structures
NAME
these are indirectly or directly attached by tendons and aponeuroses to bones, ligaments, cartilages, or fascia or some other stucture
skeletal muscles
Skeletal muscles are indirectly or directly attached by (1)and (2)to bones, ligaments, cartilages, or fascia or some other structure
(1)tendons (2)aponeuroses
Most muscles are named on teh basis of their (1)
bones to which they are attached
What are some types of synovial joints? (6)
(1)hinge (2)pivot (3)saddle (4)condlyoid (5)plane (6)ball and socket joints
NAME
some of these include hinge, pivot, saddle, condyloid, plane, and ball and soket joints
synovial joints
What are hinge joints?
are unaixal and permit flexion and extension only
NAME
these are unaxial and permit flexion and extension
hinge joint
What are pivot joint?
are unaxial and allow rotation
NAME
these are unaxial and allow roatation
pivot joint
Describe what pivot joints look like
is like a round process of bone that fits into a bondy ligamentous socket
NAME
this is like a round process of bone that fits into a bondy ligamentous socket
pivot joint
Give a example of a hinge joint
the elbow joint
NAME
a example of this is the the elbow joint
hinge joint
what are some examples of pivot joints?
joint btwn the atalas C1 and axis C2
NAME
a example of this joint is the joint btwn the atalas C1 and C2
pivot joint
What are saddle joints?
are biaxial and are shaped like a saddle
NAME
these are biaxial and are shaped like a saddle
saddle joint
What are some examples of a saddle joint?
joint btwn the metacarpal and the trapexium
NAME
a example of this is the joint btwn the metacarpal and the trapexium
saddle joints
What are condyloid joints?
are biaxial and permit and cirumduction ( c for circumduction)
NAME
this joint is biaxial and permit flexion and extension, abduction, and adducation, and cirumduction
condyloid joint
What are some examples of condyloid joint?
the metacarophalagneal joints of the fingers
NAME
these include the metacarophalagenal joints of the fingers
condyloid joint
What are plane joints?
permit gliding or sliding movements
NAME
this joint permits gliding or sliding movements
plane joints
What are ball and socket joints?
are mulitaxial and permit movement in several axes
NAME
these are multiaxial and permit movement in several axies
ball and socket joints
Give a example of a plane joint
a acromioclavicular joint
NAME
a example of this is acromicoclavicular joint
plane joint
What is a example of a ball and socket joint
the hip joint
NAME
a example of this is the hip joint
ball and socket joint
Draw a pic of what a hinge joint looks like
pg 17
Draw a pic of what pivot joint looks liike
pg 16
Draw a pic of what saddle joint looks like
pg 17
Draw a pic of what plane joint
pg 17
Draw a pic of a pivot joint looks like
pg 17
Draw a pic of condyloid joint look like
pg 17
Draw a pic of ball and socket joint looks like
pg 17
Are skeletal muscles are (1) and (2)
striated and voluntary
ARe skeletal muscles voluntary or unvoluntary?
voluntary
NAME
these muscles are striated and voluntary
skeletal
Where is the skeletal muscles located?
composes gross muscles attached to the skeleton and/or fascia of limbas, body wall and head/neck
NAME
these mucles are attached gross muscles attached to the skeleton and/or fascia of limbs, body wall and head/neck
skeletal muscles
How are skeletal muscles stimulated?
are stimulated voluntary by somatic nervous system
NAME
these muscles are stimulated voluntary by the somatic nervous system
skeletal muscles
Cardiac muscles are (1)and (2)
striated and involuntary
NAME
these muscles are striated and involuntary
cardiac
What are some differ btwn skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles/
(1)skeletal muscles are striated and voluntary (2)cardiac muscles are striated and involuntary (3)smooth muscles are unstriated and involuntary
What stimulates the cardiac muscles?
they are involuntary stimulated by the autonomic nervous system
NAME
these are involuntary stimulated by the autonomic nervous system
cardiac muscles
Where are smooth muscles located? (4)
(1)the walls of hollow viscera and blood vessels (2)iris (3)cillary bod of the eye (4)attached to hair follicles of the skin
NAME
these can be found in the walls of hollow viscera and blood vessels, the iris, cillary body of the eye, and attached to hair follicles of the skin
smooth muscles
How are smooth muscles stimulated?
they are involuntary stimulated by the atuonomic nervous system
NAME
these muscles are involuntary stimulated by the autonomic nervous system
smooth muscle and the cardaic muscles
Smooth muscles are (1)and (2)
unstriated and involuntary
NAME
these muscles are unstriated and involuntary
smooth muscles
Smooth muscles rae involunary stimulated by the (1)
the autonomic nervous system
the cardaic muscles are stimulated involuntary by the (1)
autonomic nervous system
The skeletal muscles are stimulated by voluntary by the (1)
somatic nervous system
What are some terms used to describe according to thier shape and architeture? (5)
(1)pennate (2)fusiform (3)parallel (4)convergent (5)circular
NAME
some terms to describe this include pennate, fusiform, parallel, convergent, and circular
muscles
What is pennate?
are muscles that are feather like in arrangment of thier fasciles
NAME
these are muscles that are feather like in arrangment of thier fasciles
pennate
What are fusiform muscles?
are muscles that are spindle shaped
NAME
these are muscles that are spindle shaped
fusiform
What are parallel muscles?
are muscles that fasciles that run parallel
NAME
these are muscles that have fasciles that run parallel
parallel muscles
What are convergent muscles?
these muscles have broad attachments from which the fasciles converge a single tendon
NAME
these are muscles that have broad attachments from which the fasciles converge a single tendon
convergent tendon
Wht are circular muscles?
these muscles surround a body opening or orficie constricting it when contracts
NAME
these are muscles that surround a body opening or orficie constricting it when it contracts
circular muscles
When muscles contract they shorten about (1)of thier resting length
70%
How much do muscles contract when the shorten from their resting length?
70%
Which muscles shorten the most?
those with a long parallel fascile arrangment
Muscles wtih a (1)arrangment shorten the most but are not powerful
a long parallel fascile
T or F
even though muscles w a long parallel fascile shorten the most they are also powerful too
false
Muscles w a long parallel fascile shorten the most but are (1)
not powerful
Are muscles w long parallel fascile powerful?
no
Muscle power increases as (1)
total number of muscles increases
Muscle (1)as total number of muscles increases
power increases
Which muscles shorten the most?
muscles w long parallel fascicle
Which muscles shorten the least?
shorter, wide, pennate muscles that pack in the most muscle fibers
Which muscles are the most powerful?
are shorter, wide pennate muscles taht pack in the most muscle fibers
Shorter wide pennate muscles that pack in the most fibers (1)but (2)
shorten the least (2)are most powerful
NAME
these muscles shorten the least but are powerful
pennate muscles that pack the most fibers
Where is the orgin located?
usally at the proximal end of the muscle
NAME
this is usally located at the proximal end of the muscle
orgin
Where is the insertion located?
at the dital end of the muscle
NAME
this is located at the distal end of the muscle
insertion
What is the differ btwn insertion and orgin?
(1)orgin is located at the proximal end of the muscle (2)insertion is located at the distal end of the muscle
What are (3)ways that skeletal muscles can contract?
(1)reflexive contraction (2)tonic contraction (4)phasic contraction
NAME
these muscles contract in three ways: reflexive contraction, tonic contraction, and phasic contraction
skeletal muscles
What is reflexive contraction?
is automatic and involuntary controlled
NAME
these contractions are automatic and not voluntary controled
reflexive contraction
What are some examples of reflexive contraction?
respiratory movements of the diaphragm
NAME
some examples of this type of contraction are respiratory movements of diaphragm
reflexive contraction
What are tonic contractions?
they are slight contractions that does not produce movement or active resistance but gives the muscles frimness asisting the stability of joints and the maintenance of posture or muscle tone
NAME
these are slight contractions that does not produce movement or active resistence but gives the muscles firmness assisting the stability of joints and mainteneance of posture
tonic contraction
What are (2)types of phasic contraction?
(1)isometic contraction (2)istonic contractions
NAME
these 2 types of this include isometric and istonic contractions
phasic contractions
What is isometric contraction?
is contractions in which the muscle length remains the same--no movement occurs but muscle tension is increased about tonic levels
NAME
during this type of contraction the muscle length remains the same--no movement occurs but the muscle tension is increased about tonic levels
isometric contraction
What is isotonic contractions?
is when the muscle changes lenght to produce movement
NAME
this type of contraction is when the muscle changes to produce movement
isotonic contractions
What is the differ tbwn isometric and isotonic contraction?
(1)isometric contraction is contractions in which the muscle length remains the same--no movement occurs but muscle tension is increased about tonic levels
What are (2)types of isotonic contractions?
(1)concentric contraction (2)eccentric contractions
NAME
there are (2)types of this contractions: concentric contraction and eccentric contractions
isotonic contractions
What are concentric contraction?
is in which the movement occurs owing to muscle shortening
nAME
during this type of movement, the movement occurs owing to the muscle shortening
concentric contraction
What is eccentric contraction?
is in which the contracting muscle lengthens
NAME
during this type of movement, the contracting muscle lengthens
eccentric contractions
The structural unit of the muscle if a (1)
muscle fiber
the muscle fibers is the (1)
structural unit of the muscle
What is the structural unit of the muscle?
the muscle fiber
What is endomysium?
is a connective tissue covering invidual muscle fibers
NAME
this is a connective tissue covering ividual muscle fibers
endomysium
What is epimysium?
surrounds the entire muscle
NAME
this surrounds the entire muscle
epimysium
What is perimysium?
is a group of fibers or fiber bundles
NAME
this is a group of fibers of fiber bundles
perimysium
What is the differ btwn endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium? (3)
(1)endomysium is connective tissue covering invidual muscle fibers (2)perimysium is a group of muscle fibers (3)epimysium surrounds the entire muscle fiber
What is the functional unit of the muscle?
the muscle unit
NAME
this is the functional unit of the muscle
the muscle unit
What is the muscle unit?
is the functional unit consisting of a motor neuron and muscle fibers
NAME
this is the functional unit consisting of a motor neuron and muscle fiber
muscle unit
Where can some large motor units be found? (2)
in the large trunk (2)thigh muscles
NAME
these can be found in the large trunk and thigh muscles
large motor units
What are some spefic functions that differ muscles can serve? (4)
(1)a prime mover (2)fixators (3)synergist (4)antagonist
NAME
some of these include a prime mover, fixators, synergist, and antagonist
muscles
The prime mover is also called the (1)
agonist
The (1)is also called the agonist
prime mover
What is the prime mover?
is the main muscle responsible for producing a specfic movement of the body
NAME
this is the main muscle responsible for producing a specfic movement of the the body
prime mover
What are fixators?
steady the proximal parts of a limb
NAME
these steady the proximal parts of the limb
fixators
What are the syngergist/
they complement the actions of primer movers
NAME
these complement the actions of primer movers
syngergist
What is antagonist?
it is a muscle that opposes the action of a prime mover
NAME
this is a muscle that opposes the action of a prime mover
antagonist
What is the differ tbwn a prime mover, fixators, synergist, and antagonist?
(1)primer mover is the main muscle responsible for producing a specfic movement of the body (2)fixators steady the proximal parts of a limb while movements are occuring at distal parts (3)synergist complements the action of prime movers (4)antagonist is a muscle that opposes the action of the prime mover
The cardiac muscle forms the musclular wall of the heart is the (1)
myocardium
NAME
this is the cardaic muscles that forms the muscular wall of the heart
myocardium
the heart rate is regulated by intrinsically by a (1)
pacemaker
NAME
this is regulated intrinsically by the packemaker
heart rate
NAME
this helps to an examiner diagnose nerve injuries
muscle testing
Muscle testing helpst an examiner to diagnose (1)
nerve damage
What are (3)common tests for nerve injuries?
(1)the person performs movement that resist those produced by the examiner (2)the examiner performs movements against resistance produced by the person (3)electromyography
NAME
there are (3)tests that can be used to test this: the person performs movements that resist those produced by the examiner, the examiner performs movements against resistance produced by the person and electromyography
nerve injuries
What does EMG stand for?
electromygraphy
A normal resting muscle shows only (1)which disappears during sleep, paralysis, and when under anesthesia
baseline activity
A (1)muscle shows only baseline activty which disappears during sleep, paralysis, and when under anesthsia
normal resting
A normal resting muscle taht shows only baseline activity which disapeasrs during (1)
sleep, paralysis and when under sleep
Contracting muscles demonstracte variable peaks of (1)
plastic activtiy
(1)muscles demonstrate variable peaks of plastic activity
contracting
Musle atrophy may also be caused by (1)
immobilization such as w a cast
NAME
this may be caused by immobilization such as in cast
musclular atrophy
involuntary muscles can undergo partial contraction for (1)period of times
long
(1)muscles can undergo partial contractions for long periods of times
involuntary
T or F
voluntary muscles can undergo partial contractions for long periods of times
false
Why is involuntary muscle contraction for long periods important?
bc it helps to regulate the size of the lumen of tubular structure
NAME
this helps to regulat the size of the lumen of tubular structure
involuntary muscle contraction for long periods of time
What is peristalsis?
is the process of propelation of contents down tubular structure
NAME
this is the process of propelaton of contents down tubular structure
peristalisis
STOPED HERE
STOPED HERE
What is compensatory hypertrophy?
is when the myocardium responds to increasing demands by increasing the size of its fiber cells
NAME
this is when the myocardium responds to increasing demands by increasing the size of its fiber cells
compensatory hypertrophy
What happens when cardiac muscle fibers are damaged during a heart attack?
the tissue becomes necrotic and fibrous scar tissue develops forms a MI
NAME
when this happens the tissue (cardiac muscle fibers) become necrotic and fibrous scar tissue develops forms a MI
during a heart attack
What does necrotic mean?
mean the cells dies
NAME
this means the cells die
necrotic
What does MI stand for?
myocardial infarct
What is MI?
this is an area of myocardial necrosis
What does MI stand for?
myocardial infarct
NAME
this is an area of myocardial necrosis
MI
What is myocardial nerosis?
is the death of myocardial tissue
NAME
this is the death of myocardial tissue
myocardial nerosis
Give an example of how smooth muscles hyperatrophy in respone to increasing demands
during pregrancy, the smooth muscle cells in the wall of the utereus increase not only in size but numbers
During pregrancy, (1)cells in the wall of the utereus increase not only in size but numbers
smooth muscles
During pregrancy, the smooth muscle cells in the wall of the uterus (1)
not only increase in size but numbers
What is the circulatory system?
it transports fluids throughout the body
NAME
this transports fluids throughout the body
circulatory system
What are (2)types of systems that make up the circulatory system?
(1)cardiovascular system (2)lymphatic system
NAME
this is made up of two systems: cardiovascular system and lymphatic system
circulatory systems
What does the blood carry? (3)
(1)nutrients (2)oxygen (3)waste products from cells
NAME
this carry nutrients, oxygen, and waste products from the cells
blood
What are (3)type of blood vessels?
(1)arteries (2)veins (3)capillaries
NAME
there are three types of these: arteries, veins and capillaries
blood vessels
Blood under high pressure leaves the heart and is disturbed by branching system of thick walled (1)
arteries
Blood under (1)leaves the heart and is disturbed by branching system of thick walled arteries
high pressure
What are arterioles?
they deliver oxygenated blood to capillaries
NAME
these deliver oxygenated blood to the capillaries
arterioles
Capilllaries form a (1)
capillary bed
(1)form a capillary bed
capillaries
What is a capillary bed?
is where the interchange of oxygen, nutrients, waste products, and other substances w extracellular fluid occurs
NAME
this is where the interchange of oxygen, nutrients, waste products, and other substances w extracellular fluid occurs
capillary bed
What are venules?
these drain into small veins that open into larger veins
NAME
these drain into small viens that open into larger viens
venules
Venules drain into (1)that open into larger veins
small veins
What does SVC stand for?
superior vena cava
What does IVC stand for?
inferior vena cava
What are the largest vein? (2)
(1)SVC (2)IVC
NAME
these are the SVC and IVC
the largest veins
What do the largest veins do?
they return poorly oxygenated blood to the heart
NAME
these return poorly oxygenated blood to the heart
largest veins
Most vessels of the circulatory system have (1)
3 tunics
Most (1)of the circulatory system have 3 tunics
vessels
What are the (3)tunics of most blood vessels?
(1)tunica intima (2)tunica media (3)tunica adventitia
NAME
most of these have three tunics: tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia
blood vessels
What is tuncia intima?
is a thin endothelia lining of the vessels
NAME
this is a thin endothelia lining of the vessels
tunica intima
What is tunica media?
is the smooth muscle layer of the blood vessel
NAME
this is the smooth muscle layer of the blood vessels
tunica media
What is the tunica adventita?
is the outer connective tissue coat of the blood vessel
NAME
this is the outer connective tissue coat of the blood vessel
tunica adventitia
What are arteries?
they carry blood away from the heart and distrubte to the body
NAME
these carry blood away from the heart and distribute it to the body
arteries
What are (3)types of arteries?
(1)large elastic arteries (2)medium muscular arteries (3)small arteries and arterioles
NAME
there are three types of this: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles
arteries
Large elastic arteries are also called (1)
conducting arteries
(1)are also called the conducting arteries
large leastic arteries
What are conducitn arteries?
these have many elastic layers in thier wall
NAME
these have many elastic layer in thier walls
conducting arteries
NAME
the maintenance of blood pressure in the arterial system btwn contractions of the heart results from the (1) of conducting arteries
elasticity
NAME
the maintenance of blood pressure in the arterial system btwn contractions of the heart results from the elasticity of these arteries
conducting arteries
The medium musclular arteries are also called the (1)
distributing arteries
the (1)are also called the distrubuting arteries
medium muscular arteries
What are distriubting arteries?
they have walls consisting of mainly smooth muscle
NAME
the walls of these blood vessels consist of mainly smooth muscle, circulary arranged
distrubting arteries
Give a example of conducting arteries?
the aorta
NAME
a example of this is the aorta
conducting arteries
Give a example of distributing arteries
femoral artery
NAME
the ability of these arteries to decrease thier diamater regulates the flow of blood to different parts of the body as required
distributing arteries
The ability of the distributing arteries to (1)regulates the flow of blood to different parts of the body as required
decrease thier diamter
The ability of the distributing arteries to decrease thier diamter regulates the (1)
flow of blood to different parts of the body as required
What are small arteries and arterioles?
they have relatively narrow lumina and thick muscular walls
NAME
these have relatively narrow lumnia and thick muscular walls
small arteries and arterioles
The degree of arterial pressure w/in the vascular system is mainly regulated by the (1)
degree of tonus in the smooth muscle of the arteriolar walls
the (1)w/in the vascular system is mainly regulated by the degree of tonus in the smooth muscle of the arteriolar walls
degree of arterial pressure
What is tonus?
refers to firmness
NAME
this refers to firmness
tonus
If the tonus of muscle in the natioer wall is above normal than (1)results
hypertension
Anastomoses is another name for (1)
communications
(1)is another name for commuincations
Anastomoses
What are anastomoses?
refers to the multiple branches of artery and provide numerous potential detours for blood flow in case of blockeage of a blood vessel
NAME
these are are btwn the multiple branches of artery and provide numerous potential detours for blood flow in case the usual pathway is obstructed by compression, the postion of joint, pathology, or surgical ligiation
anastomoses
What happens if a main channel is occulated?
the smaller alternate channels can usally increase in size providing a collateral circulation
If a (1)the smaller alternative channels can usally increase in size providing colateral circulation
main channel is occulated
if a main channel is occulated the smaller alternative channels can usally increase in size providing (1)
collateral circulation
What is collateral circulation?
circulation that ensures that blood supply to structures is distal to the blockage
NAME
this circulation ensures that blood supply to structures is distal to the blockage
collateral circulation
T or F
collateral pathways do not require time to develop and are usally sufficient enough to compensate for sudden occulsion or ligation
false
What is one problem w collateral circulation?
is that they require time to develop and are usally insuffient to compensate for the sudden oclusion or ligation
T or F
there are areas where collateral circulation does not exisist or is inadequate to replace the main blood vessel
true
Are there areas where collateral circulation does not exist are inadequate to replace the main blood vessel?
yes
What are terminal arteries?
are arteries that do not anastomose w adjacent arteries
NAME
these are arteries that do not anastomose w adjacent arteries
terminal arteries
What does occulsion of a termina artery do?
distrupts the blood supply to the structure or segment of an organ it supplies
NAME
distrupts the blood supply to the structure or segment of an organ it supplys
the occulusion of a termain artery
What are functional terminal arteries?
are arteries w ineffecutal anastomose or are not true terminal arteries
NAME
these are arteries w ineffectual anastomose or are not true arteries
functional terminal arteries
What is the most common acquired disease of the arteries?
arterioscelrois
Arteriosclerosis is the (1)acquired disease of the arteries
most common
What is Arteriosclerosis?
is the hardening of the arteries
nAME
this is the hardening of the arteries
Artiosclerosis
NAME
this is a common for of arterioscleoris
atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a common form of (1)
arterioscelrois
What is atherosclerosis?
is associated w the buildup of fat mainly cholesterol in the arterial walls
NAME
this is associated w the buildup of fat mainly cholesterol in the arterial walls
atheroscelrosis
What is the differ btwn arteriosclerois and atheroscelrosis?
(1)Arteriosclerois is the hardening of the arteries (2)Atherosclerosis is associated w the buildup of fat mainly cholestral in the arterial walls
Calcium deposits can form (1)
atheromatous plaque
(1)can form atheromatous plaque
Calcium deposits
Atheromatous plaque will the result in (1)
arterial narrowing and irregularticy and then possibly thrombosis
(1)will result in arterial narrowing and irregularticty and then possibly thrombosis
Atheromatous plague
What is thrombosis?
is local clotting
NAME
this is local clotting
thrombosis
What is ischemia?
is the reduction of blood supply of an organ or tissue
NAME
this is the reduction of blood supply of an organ or tissue
ischemia
What is infarction?
is the local death of an organ or tissue
NAME
this is the local death of an organ or tissue
infarction
What is myocardial infarction?
is heart attack
NAME
this is a heart attack
myocardial infarction
What is gangrene?
necrosis in the parts of the limbs
NAME
this is necrosis in the parts of the limbs
gangrene
What are some consquences of thrombus? (3)
(1)myocardial infarction (2)stroke (3)gangrene
NAME
some consquences of this are myocardial infarction, stroke, and gangrene
thrombus
What is hypertension?
is high blood pressure
nAME
this is jst another name for high blood pressure
hypertension
What does the back consist of? (7)
(1)subcutaneous tissue (2)deep fascia (3)verterbal column (4)ribs (5)spinal cord (6)meninges (7)various segmental nerves and vessels
NAME
this consists of subcutaneous tissue, deep fascia, vereterbral column, ribs, spinal cord, meninges, verious segmental nerves, and vessels
the back
What is the vertebral column?
the spine
NAME
this is the spine
verterbral column
Where is the verterbal column located?
extends from the cranium to the apex of the coccyx and forms the skeleton of the neck and is the main part of the axial skeletalon
NAME
this extends from the cranium to the apex of the coccyx and forms the skeleton of the neck and is the main parts of the axial skeleton
vertebral column
What does the vetrabral column do? (4)
(1)it protects the spinal cord and spinal nerves (2)supports the weight of the body superior to the level of the pelvis (3)provides a partly rigid and flexible axis for the body to pivot for the head (4)plays in important role in posture and locomotion
NAME
this protects the spinal cord and spinal nerves, supports the weight of the body superior to the level of the pelvis, provides a partly rigid and flexible axis for the body to pivot the head, and plays in important role in posture and locomotion
vertebral column
How many vertebrae does a adult start out w ?
33 vertebrae
humans are born w (1)vertebrae
33
What are the (5)regions of the vertebrae?
(1)7 cervical (2)12 thoarcic (3) 5 lumbar (4)5 sacral (5)4 coccygeal
NAME
this has 5 regions: 7 cervical, 12 thoarcic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 5 coccygeal
verteebrae
What are the (5)regions of the vertebrae?
(1)7 cervical (2)12 thoarcic (3) 5 lumbar (4)5 sacral (5)4 coccygeal
What is the lumbar bosaacral angle?
occurs at the junction of the lumbar region of the veretbral column and the sacrum
NAME
this occurs at the region of the lumbar region of the veretrbral column and the sacrum
lumbar bosasacral angle
NAME
this occurs at the junction of the lumbar region of the vertebral column and the sacrum
lumbosasacral angle
What is the sacrum?
are the 5 fused sarcal verebrae in adults
NAME
these are the five fused sacral veretbrae in adults
sacrum
What are the coccyx?
are the 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae in adults
NAME
these are the 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae in adults
coccyx
What happens to the vertebral column as you move down it?
the vertbrae gradually becomes larger as the vertebral column descends to the sacrum and then becomes progressively smaller toward the apex of the coccyx
As the vertbrae gradually becomes (1)as the vertebral column descends to the sacrum and then becomes progressivly (2)toward the apex of the coccyx
vertebral column
As the verbrae gradually becomes largers as the verebral column (1) and then becomes progressively smaller toward to the (2)
(1)descends to the sacrum (2)apex of the coccyx
Why is the vetrbral column so flexible?
bc it is made up of vertebrae that are separated by IV discs
NAME
this is flexible bc it is made up of vertebrae that are separated by IV discs
vetrebral discs
What does IV discs stand for?
intervertebral discs
What are vertebrae?
are small bones separated by intervertebral discs that make up the vertebral column
NAME
these are small bones separated by intevertebral discs that make up the vertebral column
vertebrae
What are IV discs?
they separate the vertbrae
NAME
these separate the vertebrae
IV discs
the 25 cervical, throacic, lumbar, and first scaral vertebrar articulate at synovail joint (1)
zygapophysical joints
What are zygapophysial joints?
are joints of the vertebral arches
NAME
these faciliatate and control the verebtral column's flexibility
zygopophysial joints
The vertebral bodies contrbute approximately (1)of the hieght of the vertbral column
three quarters
The (1)contribute approxiamtely to the height of the vertbral column
one quarter
How many curvatures does the adult vertebral column have?
4
the adult verebral column has (1)curvatures
4
What are the (4)curvatures of the adult vertebral column?
(1)cervical (2)thoarcic (3)lumbar (4)sacral
NAME
there are 4 of them: they are cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral
curvatures
What do curvatures?
they provide a flexible support or short absorbing resilience
NAME
they provide a flexible support or a short absorbing resilience
curvatures
the sacral curvature is also called the (1)
pelvic
curvatures are also called the (1)
kyphoses
(1)are also called the kyphoses
curvatures
The thoracic and sacral curvatures are concave (1)
anteriorly
NAME (2)
these curvatures are concave anteriorly
thoracic and sacral
The cervical and lumbar curvatures are concave (1)
posteriorly
NAME (2)
these curvatures are concave posteriorly
(1)cervical and (2)lumbar
What is the differ btwn the way the thoracic and sacral curvatures and the cervical and lumbar curvatures concave?
(1)the thoracic and the sacral curvatures concave anteriorly (2)the cervical and the lumbar curvatures concave posteriorly
Which curvatures concave anteriorly (2)?
(1)thoracic (2)sacral
Which curvatures are concave posteriorly? (2)
(1)cervical (2)lumbar
What are the different primary curvatures? (2)
(1)throarcic and sacral curvatures
NAME
there are two types of this: the thoracic and the sacral curvatures
the primary curvatures
When do the primary curvatures develop?
during the fetal period
NAME
these curvatures develop during the fetal period
the primary curvatures
What are the primary curvatures?
the develop during the fetal period and are retained throughout your life
NAME
these curvatures develop during the fetal period and are retained throughout your life
primary curvatures
Why are the primary curvatures retained throughout your whole life?
as of a consquence of the differences in height btwn the anterior and posterior parts of the verebrae
What are the different (2)secondary curvatures?
(1)cervical (2)lumbar
NAME
there are two types of this curvature: the cervical and the lumbar
secondary curvature
When do the secondary curvatures appear?
appear during the cervical region during the fetal period but do not become obvious until infancy
NAME
these appear during the cervical region during the fetal period but do not become obvious until infacy
secondary curvatures
What maintains the secondary curvatures?
they are maintained primaryly by the differences in thickness btwn the anterior and the posterior parts of the IV discs
When does the cervical curvature develop?
it becomes prominent when an infant begins to hold his or her head erect
NAME
this becomes prominent when an infant begins to hold his or her head erect
cervical curvature
When does the lumbar curvature become obvious?
it becomes obvious when an infant begins to walk and assumes the upright posture
NAME
this curvature becomes obvious when an infant begins to walk and assumes the upright posture
lumbar curvature
The lumbar curvature is usally more pronounced in (1)
females
T or F
the lumbar curvature is more pronounced in males
false
The lumbar curvature ends at the (1)
lumbosacral angle
the (1)ends at the lumbosacral angle
lumbar curvature
What is the lumbosacral angle?
is formed at the junction of L5 vertebra w the sacrum
NAME
this is formed at the junction of L5 vertebra w the sacrum
lumbosacral angle
How is the sacral curvature differ in females>
bc it is reduced so that the coccyx protrude less into pelvic outlet
NAME
in females, this curvature, it reduced so that the coccyx protrudes less into the pelvic outlet
sacral curvature
The (1)curvature in females is reduced so that the coccyx protrudes less into the pelvic outlet
sacral curvature
What are some causes of abnormal curvatures?
(1)developmental a