Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ANTERIOR MUSCLES OF THE ARM
Biceps branchii
Coracobrachialis
Branchialis
BICEPS BRANCHII
Have 2 heads
The short head arises from the coracoid process together with the coracobrachialis muscle.
The long head arises from the supragleniod tubercle of the scapula and transveres the cavity of the shoulder joint to run in the intertubercular groove between the greater and lesser tubercles
2 HEADS OF THE BICEPS BRACHII ARE ATTACHED TO?
The radial tuberosity on the upper end of the radius
BICIPITAL APONEUROSIS
As the tendon passes downwards it gives off a strong expansion, which blends with the deep fascia over the flexor muscles.
THE BICEPS
Flexes the elbow and is the strongest SUPINATOR of the forearm.
Biceps also travel across the shoulder joint, so to a slight extent it is a flexor and ABDUCTOR OF THE SHOULDER
WHEN THE BICEPS CONTRACT TO LIFT
Lifting a heavy load its 2 heads are crucial in maintaining the coaptation of the articular surfaces of the shoulder. The short head resting on the coracoid process lifts the humerus relative to the scapula & along with the other longitudinal muscles (triceps,coracobrachialis, & deltoid) prevent its downward dislocation. at the same time the long head of the biceps presses the humeral head against the glenoid
BICEPS BRANCHII
It is clear that the biceps is bent at the level of bicipital groove without an associated sesamoid bone and is subject to severe mechanical stress, which can only be tolerated when the muscle is in good condition. If collagenous fibers degenerate with age, the intraarticular tendon my snap as the result of the slightest effort.
CORACOBRACHIALIS
Arises from the coracoid process with the short head of the biceps and inserts on the anteromedial surface of the humerus near its middle. It is a FLEXOR and ADDUCTOR of the arm.
BRACHIALIS
Arises from the lower half of the anterior surface of the humerus and from both intermuscular septa and inserts upon the ulnar tuberosity; FLEXES THE FOREARM.
ALL 3 MUSCLES (BICEPS BRANCHII,CORACOBRACHIALIS, & BRACHIALIS) ARE INNERVATED BY
The MUSCULOCUTANEOUS NERVE. Thus, damage to the musculocutaeous nerve interferes with flexion at the shoulder and elbow joints, especially the elbow and causes weakening of supination. Midshaft fracture of the humerus may damage the musculocutaneous nerve.
LONG HEAD OF THE TRICEPS BRACHII MUSCLE
Arises from the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula.
LATERAL HEAD OF THE TRICEPS
Arises from the humerus above the and lateral to the groove for the radial nerve, and from the lateral intermuscular septum. The lateral head of the triceps unites with the long head to form the superficial tendinous part of the insertion of the muscle.
MEDIAL HEAD OF THE TRICEPS
Arises from the humerus, but medial to and below the groove for the radial nerve, so that it comes to cover the entire posterior surface if the lower part of the bone, where it arises also from both intermusclar septa. The medial head attaches into the deep surface of the combined lateral and long heads of the triceps.
ALL 3 HEADS OF THE TRICEPS INSERT TOGETHER
On the proximal end of the olecranon.The triceps constitutes the CHIEF EXTENSOR of the elbow joint
LONG HEAD OF THE TRICEPS
Since the long head of the triceps crosses the shoulder joint, it also aids in EXTENSION and ADDUCTION of the arm.
ANCONEUS
Is a small triangular muscle attached to the lateral epicondyle and to the lateral side of the olecranon and adjacent part of the ulna. The anconeus helps the triceps extend the forearm and tenses of the capsule of the elbow joint, preventing its being pinched during extension
THE TRICEPS AND ANCONEUS ARE INNERVATED BY
The radial nerve
FLEXION
Is produced by the anterior DELTOID, CLAVICULAR PECTORALIS MAJOR, CORACOBRACHIALIS AND THE LONG HEAD OF THE BICEPS with lateral rotation of the scapula produced by trapezius and serratus anterior
EXTENSION
Is produced by latissimus dorsi, sternocostal part of pectoralis major, posterior deltoid, teres major, the long head of the triceps and is accompanied by medial rotation and elevation of the scapula
ABDUCTION
Is produced by deltoid and supraspinatus
ADDUCTION
Is produced by latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, teres major, and medial rotators of the scapula; long head of the triceps and coracobrachialis also assist to a small extent
MEDIAL ROTATION
Is produced by pectoralis major, ant. deltoid, latissimus dorsi, teres major and, when the arm is by the side, by scapularis
LATERAL ROTATION
Is produced by infraspinatus, posterior deltoid, and teres minor
MOVEMENTS OF THE ELBOW
Flexion: brachialis, biceps, and brachioradialis

Extension: triceps and anconeus
4 MAIN NERVES TRAVERSING THE ARM:
Median, Ulnar, Radial,and Musculocutaneous
MUSCULOCUTANEOUS NERVE
Passes through the coracobrachialis m., supplies all the muscles of the ant. arm and continues on the forearm as the lat. antebrachial cut.
MEDIAN NERVE
Gives no branches in the arm and supplies all the anterior muscles of the forearm except 2 (FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS (FCU)), medial portion of FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNSUS (FDP) and some muscles of the hand
ULNAR NERVE
Gives no branches in the arm, travels between the medial epicondyle and olecranon into the forearm, supplies 2 muscles of the forearm (FCU, and medial portion of FDP) and almost all the muscles of the hand
RADIAL NERVE
Travels to the back of the arm; here it is closely applied to the bone and is liable to be damaged in fractures of the middle third of the humerus; supplies all the posterior muscles and skin of the upper limb
BRACHIAL ARTERY
Is a continuation of the axillary artery below the teres major muscle. The brachial artery gives off deep or PROFUNDA BRACHIAL ARTERY, SUPERIOR ULNAR COLLATERAL ARTERY (travels with ulnar n. behind the med. epicondyle) and inf. ulnar collateral (arises about 5cm above the elbow).
BRACHIAL ARTERY IS DIVIDED
In the cubital fossa into radial and ulnar arteries. The profounda artery gives off 2 branches: middle collateral or posterior descending descends on the back of the lateral epicondyle; radial collateral passes in front of the lat. epicondyle
FOREARM (ANTEBRACHIUM) CUBITAL FOSSA:
Medial boundary- is lateral border of the pronator teres.
Lateral boundary- is medial border of the brachioradialis m.
Floor- Is formed by brachialis and supinator
The median n., brachial a. and tendon of biceps enter the fossa
MUSCLES & VESSELS OF THE FOREARM ARE ENCLOSED BY
Deep or antebrachial fascia
ON THE ANTERIOR SURFACE OF THE WRIST THE FASCIA IS THICKENED TO FORM 2 LIGAMENTS:
PALMAR CARPAL-Is stretched between the styloid processes of the radius and ulna.
The deeper layer is called FLEXOR RETINACULUM. It stretches across the wrist from scaphoid and trapezium laterally to the pisiform and hook of the hamate medially. The Flexor retinaculum converts the carpal groove formed by carpal bones into an osteofibrous canal called the CARPAL TUNNEL. FDS,FDP and FPL tendons and median n. travel through thhe carpal tunnel.
ON THE DORSAL SIDE OF THE WRIST IS
THE EXTENSOR RETINACULUM
ANTERIOR ANTEBRACHIAL MUSCLES ARE DIVIDED INTO
Superficial and Deep
SUPERFICIAL ANTERIOR ANTEBRACHIAL MUSCLES ARE:
PRONATOR TERES- has 2 heads humeral and ulnar, and is attached to the lateral surface of the radial shaft. Median n. travels between the 2 heads of the muscle
SUPERFICIAL ANTERIOR ANTEBRACHIAL MUSCLES ARE:
PALMARIS LONGUS (absent in 12 % of population) expands into the palmar skin iin grasping an object
SUPERFICIAL ANTERIOR ANTEBRACHIAL MUSCLES ARE:
FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS- is attached to the base of the 2nd metacarpal and sends a slip to the base of the 3rd metacarpal. Acting with the FCU and sometimes the FDS flexes the wrist; acting with extenosors help to abduct the hand; its obliquity allows it to assist in pronation
SUPERFICIAL ANTERIOR ANTEBRACHIAL MUSCLES ARE:
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS- has 2 heads HUMERAL & ULNAR ( ulnar n. travels between thses two heads). FCU is attached to the pisiform bone and the attachment is prolonged to the hamate and 5th metacarpal bones by ligaments. Action; with other flexors flexes the wrist, with extensors, adducts
SUPERFICIAL ANTERIOR ANTEBRACHIAL MUSCLES ARE:
FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS- has 2 heads: Humeroulnar and Radial. Median n. and ulnar a. travels between the 2 heads. FDS has 4 tendons attached to the middle phalanges of the 4 medial digits. It flexes all the joints it crosses, primarily the middle phalanges (PIP) and then the proximal phalanges (MCP)
DEEP FLEXORS
ANTEBRACHIAL MUSCLES ARE:
FDP is attached to the distal phalanges of the 4 medial fingers and on its way to insertion spilts the tendon of the FDS. It flexes the distal phalanges after the FDS has bent the middle phalanges; assists in flexing the wrist. The tendons of FDP are not well seperated, except for the tendon going to the index finger, that way is almost impossible to flex a distal phalanx of a single finger without flexing the others. The muscle primarily is a flexor of DIP joints.
FPL, PRONATOR QUADRATUS
ANTEBRACHIAL MUSCLES ARE:
THERE ARE 3 SYNOVIAL COMPARTMENTS TO THE WRIST:
ULNAR BURSA-contains the tendon of the FDS and FDP
RADIAL BURSA- contains the tendon of the FPL.
3d compartment contains the tendon of the FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS (FCR).
FIBROUS FLEXOR SHEATH
Tendons of the flexors surrounded by synovial sheath travel through the osteofibrous canal formed by the arches of dense fibrous tissue. Which is attached to the periosteum of the phalanges. Tendons are attached to the phalanges by thin fibrous slips
VINCULA
Tendons are attached to the phalanges by thin fibrous slips,
which transmit boold vessels to the tendons.