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52 Cards in this Set

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THE SKELETON OF THE UPPER LIMB
IS DIVIDED INTO?
Gridle and the Free Limb
GRIDLE OF THE UPPER LIMB
(PECTORAL GIRDLE)
Composed of the clavicle and scapula
THE FREE LIMB IS COMPOSED OF?
The arm or brachium, the forearm or antebrachium, and the hand or manus
THE HAND OR MANUS IS COMPOSED
OF?
Carpus, Metacarpus, and Phalanges
SCAPULA?
Scapula with the spine, acromion, glenoid cavity, and coracoid process, inferior, superior and lateral angles is attached to the body wall by a heavy musculature
CLAVICLE?
Is one of mans greatest skeletal inheritances; the clavicle holds the shoulder away from the body & therefore permits us to use our arms.
CLAVICLE IS ATTATCHED TO?
The sternum and scapula by synovial joint: STERNOCLAVICULAR & ACROMIOCLAVICULAR
LIGAMENTS OF THE CLAVICLE R?
CORACOCLAVICULAR & ACROMIOCLAVICULAR
CORACOCLAVICULAR?
Is composed of two parts, which are named according to their shape; the posteromedial CONOID and anterolateral TRAPEZOID.
they restrain the movements of the scapula and these are the main structures suspending the scapula and the upper limbs from the clavicle.
CORACOACROMIAL & SUPERIOR TRANSVERSE SCAPULAR
Ligaments of the scapula are coracoacromial and superior transverse scapular. Coracoacromial ligament contributes to the formation of a strong coracoacromial arch
SHOULDER JOINT
Is formed by the head of the humerous and glenoid fossa. The shallowness of the glenoid cavity is deepened by the FIBROCARTILAGINOUS GLENOID LABRUM
ARTICULAR CAPSULE IS STRENGTHED BY LIGAMENTS:
Coracohumeral and Glenohumeral
THE INFERIOR PART OF THE CAPSULE?
Is the weakest, being relatively unsupported by muscles
THE GREAT RANGE OF MOVEMENTS OF THE UPPER LIMB IS DUE TO?
The combination of the movements at the shoulder joint with movements of the shoulder gridle.
FROM THE POSITION OF REST THE SCAPULA IS FREELY MOVABLE ON THE CHEST WALL IN 3 DIRECTIONS?
1.ELEVATION AND DEPRESSION- exemplifed by the shrugging of shoulders
2.FORWARD MOVEMENT OF THE SCAPULA or PROTRACTION;BACKWARD MOVMENT or RETRACTION
3.FORWARD ROTATION OF THE SCAPULA or LATERAL ROTATION or UPWARD ROTATION.
the opposite movement is MEDIAL ROTATION
MUSCLES, WHICH ACT ON THE SHOULDER R CLASSIFED INTO?
Extrinsic and Intrinsic
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES
TRAPEZIUS-ORIGIN- Occipital bone (superior nuchal line, ETERNAL OCCIPITAL PROTUBERANCE), the ligamentum nuchae, the 7th cervical & all thoracic vertebral spinous process, & corresponding supraspinous ligment
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES
Trapezius-Insertion- on the spine of the scapula, the acromion, and the lateral 3rd clavicle
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES
Function of the Trapezis muscle:
Its upper fibers, inserting on the clavicle & acromion, can raise the point of the shoulder & are the only fibers that can do so directly
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES
Function of the Trapezis muscle:
Acting with the levator scapulae its upper fibers elevate the scapula & with it the point of the shoulder.
The upper fibers can also flex the neck toward the same side, by taking their fixed point from below
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES
Function of the Trapezis muscle:
Working with the lower fibers of the muscle, which pull downwards on the base of the scapular spine, the upper fibers of trapezius with the help of the serratus anterior rotate the scapula upward (so that the arm can be raised above the head)
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES
Function of the Trapezis muscle:
Contraction of the muscle as a whole or the middle fibers acting with the rhomboids retracts the scapula.
contraction of the lower fibers alone will depress the scapula
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES
Function of the Trapezis muscle:
When the shoulder is fixed, the trapezius may draw the head backwards and laterally, extending the head and turning it to the opposite side.
The trapezius plays a major role in carrying of heavy loads, preventing the arm from sagging and the scapula from leaving the thoracic wall
TRAPEZIS MUSCLE -INNERVATION?
Trapezis muscle:
INNERVATION- SPINAL ACCESSORY (CN XI) and the branches of the C 3,4
TRAPEZIS MUSCLE BLOOD SUPPLY?
Trapezis muscle:
BLOOD SUPPLY- SUPERFICIAL BRANCH OF TRANSVERSE PROCESS CERVICAL ARTERY -- from THYROCERVICAL TRUNK -- from SUBCLAVIN
LEVATOR SCAPULAE- ORIGIN
From transverse processes of the upper 4 cervical vertebrae;
Inserts- on the superior angle & upper part of the medial border of the scapula
RHOMBOIDEI, MINOR & MAJOR
Not necessarily clearly distinct from each other;
Origin- minor-lower part of ligamentum nuchae and spinous process C7, T1.
Major-spinous process of T2-5;
insertion-on the medial border of the scapula
FUNCTION OF THE MUSCLES
LEVATOR SCAPULAE acting with TRAPEZIUS (UPPER)elevates the scapula. If the shoulder is fixed the muscle inclines the neck to the same side.
FUNCTION OF THE MUSCLES
RHOMBOIDS acting with TRAPEZIUS (middle fibers or whole muscle retract the scapula
FUNCTION OF THE MUSCLES
Acting together (LEVATOR SCAPULAE, RHOMBOIDS & PECTORALIS MINOR) raise primarily the medial border of the scapula and thus produce downward rotation of the glenoid cavity as to depress the shoulder
FUNCTION OF THE MUSCLES
All 3 (LEVATOR SCAPULAE & RHOMBOIDS) in association with the other muscles inserted into the scapula help to control is position and movements during active use of the upper limb (fix the medial border of the scapula)
INNERVATION
Rhomboids-dorsal scapular C5
Levator scapulae-dorsal scapular & C3,4
LATISSIMUS DORSI,ORIGIN?
ORIGIN-spines of the lower 6 thoracic vertebrae, posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia by which it is attached to all the lumbar and sacral spinous process, to the supraspinous ligamens, & to the posterior part of the crest of the ilium, the lower 4 ribs, & a few fibers from the inferior angle of the scapula
LATISSIMUS DORSI, INSERTION?
INSERTION- on its way to insertion it twists sharply around the teres major and is attached to the floor (and/or medial lip) of the intertubercular groove
LATISSIMUS DORSI?
It is an adductor, extensor and medial rotator of the humerus; it depresses the shoulder; acting from its insertion it is one of the chief climbing muscles; it is also a powerful factor in rowing and in down stroke in swimming. It take part in all violent expiratory movements, such as coughing or sneezing & aids in DEEP INSPIRATION
LATISSIMUS DORSI, INNERVATION?
Innervation-thoracodorsal n, from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus C6,7,8
SERRATUS ANTERIOR-ORIGIN?
Origin-arises on the anterolateral thoracic wall- from the upper 8 to 10 ribs
SERRATUS ANTERIOR-INSERTION?
Insertion- upon the costal surface of the entire medial border if the scapula
SERRATUS ANTERIOR?
Serratus anterior with pectoralis minor is active in PROTRACTION & DEPRESSION of the scapula, in all reaching and pushing movements & is often called "the boxer's muscle."
Assists the trapezius in upward rotation of the scapula, so we can raise the arm above the head.
Stabilizes the medial border of the scapula
SERRATUS ANTERIOR,INNERVATTION?
INNERVATION-long thoracic nerve C5,6,7.
When the long thoracic nerve is damaged, the vertebral border of the scapula protrudes dorsally; conndition known as "winging of the scapula." This become obvious when the arms are held horizontally forward, & even more so if the person pushes against resistance
PECTORALIS MAJOR-ORIGIN?
ORIGIN-APPROXIMATELY MEDIAL 2/3 of the clavicle, sternum,upper 6 costal cartilages & by a small slip from the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique
PECTORALIS MAJOR- INSERTION?
Insertion- crest of the greater tubercle or lateral lip of the intertubercular(bicipital) groove
PECTORALIS MAJOR HAS 2 HEADS?
CLAVICULAR & STERNOCOSTAL and seperated from the deltoid by the cephalic vein.
CLAVICULAR PART of the pectoralis major AIDS IN?
Flexion of the shoulder joiont to the horizontal.
STERNOCOSTAL PART of the pectoralis major AIDS IN?
Powerful extensor of the fully flexed arm together with the latissimus dorsi and teres major. Lower fibers depress the arm and through it the shoulder. Pectralis major as a whole adducts the arm, medially rotates the arm and brings it forward and medially across the chest
Pectoralis major INNERVATIION?
Innervation- medial and lateral pectoral nerve
PECTORALIS MINOR-ORIGIN, INSERTION?
Origin-3,4,5th ribs;
Insertion- CORACOID PROCESS of the scapula.
Acting WITH SERRATUS ANTERIOR HELPS IN PROTRACTION AND DEPRESSION OF THE SCAPULA; ACTING WITH LEVATOR AND RHOMBOID IT MEDIALLY ROTATE THE SCAPULA
PECTORALIS MINOR INNERVATION?
INNERVATION- MEDIAL & LATERAL PECTORAL NERVES
MUSCLES ACTING ON THE SCAPULA

ELEVATION & DEPRESSION?
1.Elevation-levator scapulae and trapezius

2.Depression-serratus anteriorr and pectoralis minor
MUSCLES ACTING ON THE SCAPULA

PROTRACTION & RETRACTION OF THE SCAPULA?
1.Protraction-serratus anterior and pectoralis minor

2.Retraction-trapezius & rhomboids
FORWARD OR UPWARD OR LATERAL ROTATION OF THE SCAPULA?
when the inferior angle of the scapula is moved laterally and forward around the thoracic wall, so the GLENOID CAVITY faces almost directly upwards. The position, which is assumed when the arm is raised above the head. The trapezius and serratus anteruir are prime movers
Medial or downward rotation of the scapula?
Is affected by gravity & is brought about through the action of the rhomboids, levator scapulae & pectoralis minor.

ALL THESE MUSCLES ARE PRIME MOVERS.