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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
symptoms of asthma
cough
SOB
wheezing
chest tightness
secretions
risk factors for asthma
1) Genetic, 2) Infection/Allergy, 3) Environment:
male
family hx
allergy
chronic lung disease
viral contagion
over-crowding
bottle-fed babies
smoking
exposure to allergens
Asthma Gene in lung and bronchial smooth muscle cells (highly expressed in remodeled tissue).
ADAM33 (chromosome 20)
Candidate genes (in chromosome 5, 11 and 12)

Potential asthma genes involved in regulating what immunological functions
- IgE production
- IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13 and IFNg secretion
- Mast cell Fc receptor expression
- b2 adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptor expression on smooth muscle cells
Asthma trigger factors
viral infection
household allergens
pets
exercise
climatic changes
air pollution
food allergens
What did the University of Toronto researchers find evidence of on the lost island?
genetic factors of asthma
respiratory epithelium produces what in response to Automotive (and manufacturing) exhaust (components) ?
Proinflammatory cytokines

(also stimulated by NO2, SO2
and O3).
B cells produce what in response to Automotive (and manufacturing) exhaust (components) ?
IgE
Macrophages produce what in response to Automotive (and manufacturing) exhaust (components) ?
Proinflammatory
chemokines (RANTES)
Viruses isolated from the respiratory tract during
exacerbations of asthma
Rhinoviruses
Other Picornaviruses
Coronaviruses
Influenza
Parainfluenza
RSV
Episodes of _______ are thought to lead to the
later development of asthma
bronchiolitis
Antigens causing type I hypersensitivity reactions (or immediate-type hypersensitivity) are defined as ______ and induce the formation of ____ antibodies
allergens

IgE
IgE-based antibody responses are common in ______ infections but individuals with a condition known as atopy produce IgE responses against a number of other (non-parasitic) antigens.
parasitic
Atopic individuals thus exhibit elevated levels of serum IgE and, often, conditions such as _____, hay fever, eczema or food allergies.
asthma
Immediate and Late reactions of asthma
Imm: vascular/smooth muscle response (driven by histmaine/lipid mediators)

Late: inflammation (driven by cytokines)
Absence of IL-12 causes what change in immunology of Mice?
no C5 = no IL-12


(IL-12 is required for development of Th1 population, thus affects the balance between the TH1 and the TH2 subpopulations)
TIM1 is involved with the development of ___ cells
Th2
cytokines released by Th2 cells
IL-4, IL-13, (IL-5 talks to eosinophils)
mast cells use what cytokines to affect eosinophils to cause inflammation
IL-16, IL-5
inhibiting a signaling molecule in the airway epithelium cells known as _____ can significantly reduce the fibrosis associated with chronic asthma.
NF-κB
____--bearing eosinophils infiltrate the
asthmatic respiratory membrane via
Eotaxin/CCL11 secreted by airway epithelial
cells, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells.
CCR3
_____ is overexpressed in asthmatic
respiratory epithelial cells.
Eotaxin
Once present in asthmatic airways, eosinophils contribute to the inflammatory component of asthma as well as to airway remodeling via basement membrane fibrosis mediated by _______ (ECP) and TGF-b.
eosinophil cationic protein
In asthma treatment, what
blocks NFkB, transcription and
AA metabolism?
Corticosteroids
Immunotherapy of asthma:
Correct immune imbalance thought to underlie atopy.

- Inject small quantities of “altered” allergen over time.

- Shift response from IgE to ______ production.

> Reduce Th2 activity
> Enhance Th1 activity
IgG or IgA