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32 Cards in this Set

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Incas, Mayans, and Aztecs
The elaborate civilizations that developed in South and Central America and Mexico are the Incas, the Mayas and the Aztecs.

Incas- Peru, South America. Created complex political system. Empire of 6 million people. Network of roads link and force together many different tribes under their rule. Never developed a system of writing.

Mayas- Central America and on Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Intelligent culture: created their own written language, numerical system, an accurate calendar, and an advanced agricultural system.

Aztecs- From the North. Used to be nomads, moving from place to place. Put an unstable law over much of central and southern Mexico, and built elaborate administrative, educational, and medical systems. Also adapted a harsh religion - human sacrifices. (Almost as elaborate as the most advanced in Europe at the time)
Complex and Varied Civilizations
Referring to peoples in pre-Columbus Americas, that were located in the area of what is now the USA and Canada. These civilizations did not develop empires as elaborate as the Incas, Mayans, or Aztecs. They instead, built complex civilizations of great variety. Based primarily on survival included Hunting, Gathering or fishing, or some combination of the three.
Mobile Societies
(Pre-Columbus America)
"Mobile Societies" is referring to the agricultural societies in the Northeast. This was because the farming techniques that were used exploited the land quickly rather then developing permanent settlements. Societies would plant their crops, then a few years later, after the land was exausted or the filth from the people began to accumulate, they moved to a new fresh region to begin their farms again.
Agricultural Revolution
Native Americans were experiencing an Agricultural Revolution in the last few centuries before people from Europe became coming to America. Tribes experiencing this revolution were developing new sources of food, clothing, and shelter. Religion was important to the tribes. (Not sure if related to the revolution.)
A Reawakening of Commerce
Was basically one of the first two causes of motives for Europeans to look to New Lands. What happened was, after the Black Death decimated the European population, there was a rebound in the population. With that, rising land values, a reawakening of commerce, and a general increase in prosperity. People began to be interested in purchasing goods from distant regions, which was when the Merchant Class was created to meet their demands.
Centralized Nation-States
Along with the rise of commerce after the rebound in the 15th century from the Bubonic plague, European governments began rising to become stronger and more united then their previous weak political entities. The authority of the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor were weak, and New Monarchs rose and created Centralized Nation-States with national courts, nationalized
Prince Henry the Navigator
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Columbus's first Voyage
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Religious Motives for Exploration
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Ferdinand Magellan
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Cortes Conquers the Aztecs
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Brutality and Greed
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Ordinances of Discover
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Catholic Missions
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St. Augustine
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Pueblo Revolt of 1680
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Spain's Vast Empire
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Rigid Royal Control
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A Collision of Cultures
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Increasing Levels of Exchange
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Demographics Catastrophe
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Deliberate Subjugation and Extermination
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New Crops and Agricultural Techniques`
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A complex Racial Hierarchy
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Reasons for Intermarriage
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Varied Labor Systems
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Ghana and Mali
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Benin, Congo, And Songhay
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Matrilineal Societies
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Growth of the African Slave Trade
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John Cabot
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The Enclosure Movement
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