Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/33

Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
"O pai Dios'
Term for "Oh, son of God." 331, After Alexander had trecked through the Egyptian desert he was anxious to consult the oracle of Amun. Upon arrival he was greated by the oracle who said "O, paidion", or "Oh, my son." This was mistranslated in to son of God. This greeting heightned Alexander's already existant belief that he a desendant from Hericles, demigod son of Zeus.
Mispronouned
'o pai Dios'
Term for "Oh, son of God." 331, After Alexander had trecked through the Egyptian desert he was anxious to consult the oracle of Amun. Upon arrival he was greated by the oracle who said "O, paidion", or "Oh, my son." This was mispronounced in to son of God. This greeting heightned Alexander's already existant belief that he a desendant from Hericles, demigod son of Zeus.
331
Opis
ancient city on the Tigris. 324, on his way back from India, Alexander released 10,000 old and injured Macedonian soldiers. Alexander's army mutinied in response. The revolt was crushed and 3 days later Persians were implemented into the Macedonian army. The 10,000 stromed the palace, and begged for forgiveness. Alexander excepted their apology. Provides evidence that Alexander planned to integrate his army, and in a wider context his empire.
324
Xenophon
Greek Historian. He lead 10,000 Athenian mercenaries into Asia Minor to help Cyrus the Younger in his fight to win the Persian Throne. In 401, his and Cyrus' forces were defeated at the battle of Canaxa. Leaving himself, and his ten thousand greek soldiers stranded in enemy territory. He later assited the Spartan king in 394, and was therefore banished from Athens. His greatest work is the Hellenica; a history of the Greeks from 411 (Thucydides) to 362. His account is considered the most thorough and reliable source of Greek history during this period.
401
394
411-362
"Boeotian pig"
A pejorative term used by Greeks to address Thebans. The Thebes were considered stupid, arrogant, and Persian symphasizers (medizing in 480) This attitude towards Thebans help lead to the demise of their hegemony in 362, at the battle of Mantinea.
480
362
Social War
A war fought between Athens and its Sea League allies between 357-355. Urged by the Persians, the cities of Cios, Rhodes, and Chios revolted against Athens. This lead to defeat for the Athenians, and kept them occupied during the rise of Philip II. No longer could Athens depend on the naval powers of these allies, but had to really solely on their own navy.
357-355/4
Cleitus the Black
Macedonian general. In Sogdeana (328) during a party for Coster and Polis, he became drunk. He then started to insult Alexander the Great for his increasingly Persian ways. Calling him the son of Ammun not Philip. Alexander pulled a knife to kill Cleitus, but Cleitus was lead out of the party. He then returned to the party and was stabbed and killed by alexander with a spear. This shows the growing discontent of Macedonians over the increasingly medized ways of Alexander. It also proved the Alexander was willing to kill anyone in opposition to his beliefs and practices.
328
Philocrates
Anthenian politician, and member of 3 embassies to kill of Macedonian during the 340's. In 346, Philip offered an offensive and defensive alliance for all signers of his peace. The Athenians wanted to wait three months for more cities to sign, but after motion by Philocrates in the Athenian assembly, the peace was approved. This marked the end of independance for Greek city states. This also shows that Philip was willing to megioate diplomatically with the cities of Greece.
346
Onomarhcus
Phocian general. In 355 he took over command of the Phocian forces. 354, he enjoyed victory over the Macedonian army twice. His army used catapults to deafeat Philip II's forces. In 353, he met defeat at the hands of Philip during the siege of Pherae. His leadership during the Third Sacred War, resulted in successful conflict for the Phocians. Their defeats over the Macedonians were rare examples of military defeats of Philip II.
355
354
353
Hegesippus
An Athenian statesman and orator in agreance with the beliefs of Demosthenes. He was 'anti-Macedonian." In 344/3 demanded amendments to the peace of Philocrates. Especially the term of uti-possidetis, "or as is." Athenians wanted gain what was rightfully theirs. In 342, he again rejected the porposed amendments of the peace concerning Helones. The amendment used the word "give" in regards to the islans. hegesippus was displeased in the use of the word, and again rejected Philip's proposal. This was the last attempt of Philip to negioate with Athens on diplomatic circumstances. Also, shows the level of opposition the Athenians felt for Macedon and Philip.
344/3
342
uti-possidetis
Lysias
Athenian orator. In 404, the Thirty Tyrants repossed the positions of Lysias and his brother Polemarcus. After the oligarchs were over thrown, he returned from Megara and prosecuted Erathosthenes and other oligarchs. His speeches are ideal examples of Athenian orators. His prescution from the Thirty shows their ruthlessness while in power.
404
403
Theramenes
Athenian statesmen. In 411, he helped to instill and later over throw the oligarchail rule of the Four Hundred. After the defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian war, he helped to implement, and became a member of the Thirty Tyrants. He then split with Critias and the other radical oligarchs. He was then denounced and put to death. He shows the constant changing political thought in Athens, and that men often sided with the most powerful side of politics, and not according to personal preferences. His death marks the turned of the Thirty into radical oligarchs in Athens.
411
404
Critias
Athenian political leader and writer. He was elected as one of the Thirty Tyrants after their lose in the Peloponnesian war. In 404, he presecuted, and urged for the execution of Theramenes. He was successful in eliminating Theramenes from removing him from the list of 3,000 lawful citizens in Athens. He was killed by the forces of Thrasybulus at the Battle of Munychia in 403. His radical political beliefs represent the increasing tyrany of the thirty in Athens. He was related to Plato. Plato seems to have admired him as can be seen through his writers. This shows that ancient authors often interjected personal bias.
404
403
Lysander
Spartan naval commander and statesman. He built up, and lead the Spartan navy resulting in the defeat of the Athenian navy in 407 (Notium) and 405 (Aegospotami) resulting in a final victory for Sparta over Athens in the Peloponessian War. He helped to install and support the thirty tyrants in Athens following his victory. In 395, he was killed at the battle of Haliartus by the forces of the Boeotian league. His emphasis and leadership of the Spartan navy was one of the major cause for Spartan victory in the Peloponnesian War.
407
405
404
395
Demosthenes.
Generally considered the greatest Greek orator, his 'anti-macedonian' views emphasized the growing power of Philip II in Macedonia. His delivered speeches, called his Phillipics, concerning this topic.(351, 344, 341)In 330 he was accused by Aeschines (political revival) for an offer made for him for a gold crown. Demosthenes eventually won his case. The political views expressed through his orations followed the policy practiced by Athens at the time. Proving the influence, and effectiveness of Demosthenes and other orators.
(351. 344, 341)
330
Thrasybulus
Athenian statesmen. 411, He was succeful in over throwing the oligarchial rule of the Four Hundred in Athens. He fought in the battle of Arginusae; one the most influential battles in the Peloponnesian War. In 404, he lead the democratic exiles against the thirty tyrants in Athens. His forces first took the town of Phyle, then the Piraeus. In 403, his forces defeated the combined forces of Sparta and the Thirty at the Battle of Munychia. This resulted in the reinstillment of a democracy in Athens. This resulted in lessened Spartan influence over Athenian politics, and the over throw of a second oligarchial regime.
411
406
404
403
Darius II Nothos
king of ancient Persia. Son of Artexerxes I and a concubine, (nothos=bastard) In 410,he lost Egypt. Through diplomacy of his son Cyrus the Younger and Tissaphernes he secured influence in Greece during th e Peloponnesian War. He did not meddle in Greek affairs while Athens was in power, but he encouraged his satraps to demand long overdue tributes and being war with Athens. In 408, he sent his son Cyrus the Younger to Asia Minor to further increase the intensity of the war with Sparta. He did in 404,and the succession of his throne was contested between his sons Cyrus the Younger and Artexerxes II. His push for war resulted in overwhelming opposition against Athens, and eventually helped lead to their defeat
410
408
404
Issus
A narrow strip of land in modern day turkey. In 333, this was the sight of the Battle of Issus. Here Alexander the Great defeated the Persian forces of Darius III. Darius was persued until the end of daylight, but was not apprehended. This victory marked the begining of the end of the powerful Persian army. It also marked a very significant victory for Alexander and Macedon. Alexander had now eliminated the bulk of Persian opposition to him; leaving a fairly clear path for conquest.
333
Artaxerxes II Mnemon
king of ancient Persian. (Mnemon=the thoughtful) After the death of his father in 404 he succedded an crushing the revolt for the throne by his brother Cyrus the Younger. Agreed to the peace of Antalcidas, also known as the king's peace. This imposed Persian control over greek city-states, and marked the end of the Corinthian War. During his reign the cult of Mithra revived.
404
386
Peace of Antalcides
(also called the King's Peace)Ended the Corinthain War . This peace was negioated by a Spartan agent Antalcides attempting to bring peace with Persia. This peace was in favor of the Persians, and it gave all the greek city-states independance. This ended the existance of leagues such as the boeotian league. The Spartans thought the peace justified interference in the politics of Greek cities. This Spartan abuse resulted in the over throw of their hegemony, and raise of theban hegemony
(395-386)
Leuctra
A boeotian village. In 371, it was the cite of the battle of Leuctra. This battle pitted the forces of Thebes and Spartan allies. The theban's sacred band was lead by Pelopidas, and the majority of their forces by Epidamnus. The Thebans attacked the vital part of the Spartan's vital point. The lose of prestige, and material experienced by the Spartans resulted in the fall of thier hegemony, and the raise of theban.
371
Mantinea
city of ancient Greece in Arcadia. In 362, it was the site of a battle between the combined forces of Sparta, Athens, and Messenia. Although the Thebans won the battle, their leader Epaminindas. The lose of such an influential military leader resulted in the decline of Theban hegemony. The fact that the hegemony relied on the leadership of a single man proves that it was built on shakey grounds from its inceptation in 371.
362
371
Epaminondas
Theban general. After refusing to sign a peace with Sparta in 371, he commanded the Theban troops at the Battle of Leuctra. His defeat over the Spartans resulted in the raise of Theban hegemony. In 367, he forced Alexander of Pherae to release Theban general Pelopidas. In 362, he lead the Thebans to victory in the Battle of Mantinea, but was killed right at the point of victory. His leadership was the foundation of Theban Hegemony, and after his death it fell, showing that the Theban hegemony was weak from the begining
371
367
Pelopidas
Theban general. He commanded the Theban Sacred Band, and contributed to the Theban victory at Leuctra. He was captured in Macedonia during an expediation in 368. he was freed from the imprisonment of Alexander of Pharea the year after. He was killed in 364. His influence, along with epaminondas, helped to build the Theban Hegemony. His death and epaminondas' in 361 resulted in the crumbling of Theban Hegemony.
371
368/7
364
Gordian knot
mythological knot tied by Godius on his oxcart. An oracle informed the people that their future would ride in an oxcart. Gordius tied a knot to his cart, and dedicated it to Zeus. It was said that whoever untied the knot would be the ruler of Asia. In 333, Alexander arrived in Gordium and was quick to prove his destiny. After examining the knot, he pulled his sword and cut the knot. This shows an attempt by Alexander that he was desendant of Zeus.
333
Roxane
the Bactrian wife of Alexander the Great. She was the daughter of a Bactrian noblemen: Oxyartes. She was married to Alexander in 327. Her father formed an alliance with Alexander as a result. She accompied Alexander in his conquest of India. In 323 (same year as Alexander's death) she bore him a son Alexander IV. This shows Alexander's favor in Persian customs. He influenced his soldiers to follow his lead, and intermarry with Persian women. This would have integrated his empire
327
323
Proskynesis
Greek term literally meaning "kissing towards." This was a Persian custom observed upon sight of persian high officials. Men would drop face first to the ground in submission to the ruler. Greeks felt that this was reserved for their gods. In 330, Alexander the Great attempted to instill this practice for all Greeeks. This led to the first conspiracy against Alexander. This revolt was lead by Philotus, and was crushed. This marks the first official rebellion to the medized ways of Alexander, and that Alexander was willing to crsh all opposition.
330
Cyrus the Younger
A Persian prince, and son of Darius II. In 408, he was sent to Asia Minor by his father to lead the offensive against the Greeks. 404, when his father died he tried to grab the throne from his brother Artexerxes II. This attempt failed, and Cyrus lost and was killed in 401 at the Battle of Canaxa. He had enlisted the help of Greece mercenaries. Known as th 10,000 (one of which was the Greek Historian Xenophon) once the battle was lost these mercenaries were stranded in enemy territory. The attempt to grab the throne by Cyrus proves that the title of Persian Empire was constantly in contention between possible heirs. By being ordered to Asia Minor, it shows that the Persians wished to increase their influence in the Peloponnesian War.
408
404
Artaxerxes III Ochus
king of Persia. Successor of Artexerxes II. He squelched unruly satraps, centralized, and strengthened his empire. He lost Egypt in 351, but regained it in 342. His reforms strengthend his empire, and set the stage for the epic conflict with Macedonia. His son Darius III was defeated at the battle of Issus in 333.
(358-338)
351-342
333
Aeschine
Athenian orator and rival of Demosthnes. Although he first opposed Philip II of Macedonia his political soon turned pro-Macedonian. In 348, he was a memeber, along with Demosthenes to Philip. he was accused of taking bribes from the Macedonians by Demosthenes in the 330's. In 330,he brought suit against against Demosthenes over the proposel of him acquiring a gold crown. He lost this suit, and fell from power. The constant accusations from demosthenes proves that demosthenes and his followers were ruthless in their accusations. The fact that Aeschine's lost the suit shows how powerful Demosthenes had become in Athens.
348
330
# Deceleia
a source of supplies for Athens. From advice from Alcibiades, the Spartans fortified Deceleia, denying Athens supplies badly needed. The decimated Athens, who was already badly beat in the Sicilian Expedition
???
Tissaphernes
a Persian soldier and statesmen. He claimed supermacy over Ionian cities, which conflicted with Cyrus the Younger. Cyrus then gathered a large army to combat his brother Artaxerxes II. Tissaphernes warned Artaxerxes, and in 401 the Battle of Canaxa followed. Cyrus the younger was defeated. He now attacked greek city states that were loyal to Cyrus. This lead to war with Sparta in 399. He was eventually defeated by the Spartan king Agesilaus II in Sardis 395. He died the same year.
401
399
Hyoereides
Athenian orator and statesman. He was at first aligned with Demosthenes, but later was an accuser of Demosthenes involving the case of Harpalus.
???