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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Perfect with a present force
Certain verbs without aspectual nuance. They are just simple present tense. This usage is common.
Intensive Pluperfect ( Resultative Pluperfect)
places the emphasis on the results in past time. Its force can usually be brought out by translating it simple past. It is different from the aorist because the aorist is not used to indicate a resultant state from the event.
Extensive Pluperfect (Consummative Pluperfect)
used to emphasize the completion of an action in past time, without focusing as much on the existing results. It is usually best tranlated as a past perfect (had + perfect passive participle).
Pluperfect with a Simple Past Force
oida is most commonly used this way. But other verbs istemi, eiwtha, peitha, paristemi.
Types of action possible
1. Internal or progressive 2. External or summary. 3. Prefective-Stative (aka Stative, Resultative, Completed).
Internal (or Progressive) Action
focuses on the action's developement or progress and sees the occurence in regard to its internal make-up, without beginning or end in view. The tense forms involved are the present and imperfect.
External (or Summary) Action
The external potrayal presents an occurrence in summary, viewed as a whole from the outside, without regard for the internal make-up of the occurence. The tense-form involved is the aorist. As well, the future apparently belongs here.
Perfective Stative Action
The unaffected meaning is a combination fo the external and internal aspects: The action is protrayed externally (summary), while the resultant state proceeding from the action is portrayed internally (continuous state).
Aspect vs. Aktionsart
Aspect is the unaffected meaning while Acktionsart is apsect in combination with lexical, grammatical, or contextual features.