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63 Cards in this Set

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legends
stories which focus on their human characters, though divinities may also play a part in these stories
saga
a series of legends tied together to tell an expanded story about a person or place.
etiology
"cause" or "origin". an etiological explanation of how something started. Etiologies are common in myths, explains where a given people came from.
social charters
myth operates as or contains a social charter when it gives an explanation, describes, or gives directions for a particular religious or cultural custom.ex: why do we observe sunday?
allegory
an allegorical interpretation sees myth as a complex series of poetic images and symbols and seeks to understnad it by understanding these metaphors. ex: Aphrodite isn't really a person, but the personification of the characteristics of human love
rationalism
a rationalistic interpretation is one that seeks to "explain away" myth as a primitive explanation for natural events. "bad science" overlooks that myth has muliple meanings
Zeus
Latin: Jupiter, Jove
lightning and thunder, kingship, justice, and order
Hera
Latin: Juno
wives and mothers; earth
Poseidon
Latin: Neputne
sea and seafaring, earthquakes
Hephaestos
latin: Vulcan
metallurgy and technology
Ares
Latin: Mars
war
Apollo
latin: Apollo
music, prophecy, poetry, archery, the sun
Artemis
latin: Diana
nature, hunting, virginity
Demeter
latin: Ceres
grain, agriculture, fertility
Aphrodite
latin: Venus
love, sex, passion, desire
Athena
latin: Minerva
wisdom, battle, city of athens
Hermes
latin: mercury
messengers, travelers; in Rome commerce and prosperity
Dionysos
latin: Bacchus, Liber
wine, drunkenness, madness, unrestrained power of nature
ex nihilo
"out of nothing" Hesiod's Theogony is NOT ex nihilo b/c the ancient greeks believed you cannont get something from nothing
Delos
birthplace of Apollo
Delphi
location of Apollo's oracle
Pytho
the dragon monster that Apollo had to defeat so he could obtain Delphi
Pythia
priestess that Apollo was supposed to speak through
Pythian Games
contests of both athletic and artistic skill. held at Delphi in honor of Apollo
Parthenon
temple of the Greek goddess Athena, built on the Acropolis of Athens
parados
passageway by which the orchestra enters and leaves; the first chorus they sing.
telesterion
big temple, unusual b/c it could hold a couple thousand worshipers. Eleusis temple of Demeter
**Erinyes(Furies)
born from the blood of Uranos hitting the earth when Cronus castrated him. born to be the avengers of crimes against against family, esp crimes of children against parents.
Areopagus
"hill of Ares" north west of the acropolis, which is classical times functioned as the chief homiced court. Ares was supposed to be tried here for the murder of Poseidon's son Alirrothios.
kykeon
drink made out of barley water and mint; part of Dememter's cult
nymphs
the caretakers of the young Dionysos; become his first worshipers
maenads
"to lose your mind" female worshipers of Dionysos
satyrs
male worshipers of Dionysos; human from waist up then goat waist down. spend life chasing maenads to have sex with them
Greater Dionysia
large religious festival in ancient Athens in honor of the god Dionysos, the central event was the performance of tragedies and comedies. (Great Dionysia was the urban part of the festival)
Eleusinian Mysteries
initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis. kept a secret
Eleusis
site of the telesterion and Eleusinian Mysteries, which are part of the cult of Demeter
Thesmophoria
festival held in honor of Demeter and Persephone. commemorated the third of the year when Demeter abstains from the rold of goddess of the harvest and growth while she is in mourning for her daughter.
chorus
offers a variety of background and summary information to help the audience follow the performance, commented on main themes and showed how an ideal audience might react
orchestra
where the chorus danced and sang
thyrsus
wand or rod carried by maenads; stick with pine cone
entheos
"having the God inside you" group aspect; mass hysteria associated with Dionysos.
pantheon
all the gods ex; the Greek Pantheon and the Roman Pantheon
Eros
latin: cupid, amor
some writers say arose from chaos, others say he was the son of Aphrodite. surpases every mortal in beauty, makes them, mortals and immortals, unable to think as they should-principle of disorder.
philotes
close tot he modern word for sex
Himeros
greek word for desire
the 3 goddesses that Aphrodite had no power over:
*Athena: virago (man+virgin) a woman with manly traits
*Artemis: virgin huntress, denys sexuality, acts like a man; wild
*Hestia: hearth; symbol of the good wife and mother. power associated with not participating in the Aphrodite stereotype
Anchises
a mortal man, shepherd, Trojan. Aphrodite falls in love b/c of Zeus. tricks him into sleeping with her. son: Aeneas
Hippolytos
virgin; gives praise to Artemis. is punished by Aphrodite b/c he does not worship her
Demophoone
child that Demeter took care of while she was in human form
Asclepius
son of Apollo; actually healed the people
Apollo epithet
he who strikes from afar; explained sudden deaths
Hyperion/Helios
"sun gods"
quid pro quo
"this for that"
ephebe
a boy that spent a year in military and cultural training; associated with Apollo
Typhoeus
zeus opponent
succession myth
describes how one generation succeeds another until it is stopped by the current ruling God.
1. conceptual evolution: gods become more human
2. order: story of chaos to human civ.
3. assimilation of two religions
Metis
(wisdom)
Athena-wisdom, skill in craft and war
Themis
(law)
orderly government, justice, peace, moirai(fates)
Eurynome
(fame)
Graces: personifications of feminine beauty and charm
Demeter
(goddess of crops)
Persephone: agriculture
Mnemosyne
(memory)
muses: inspire poetry, music and the arts
Leto
Apollo: music, prophecy, athletic skill
Artemis: virgin huntress, goddess of untamed nature and wild beasts
Hera
(Zeus's sister)
Hebe: loveliness
Ares: war
Eileithyia: childbirth