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40 Cards in this Set

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BALKAN WARS
Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria took Macedonia from the Ottomans in 1912; Serbia then fought Bulgaria in the second Ba1kan War in 1913; Austria intervened to stop the war
BERLIN CONFERENCE
laid down the roles for the conquest of Africa: 1) European countries holding a coast inland. 2) Occupation must be with real troops 3) Must give notice of which countries were occupied 4) started the scramble for Africa
BLACK HAND
ultra nationalist, Serbian society; secretly supported by members of the Serbian government
CONSCRIPTION
forced recruitment into the army to meet the needs of war
CHARLES I
last Austrian Emperor; fought w/Parliament &puritans over money for wars w/spain
ENTENTE CORDIAL
Britain gained control of Egypt; France gained control of Morocco; not an alliance, was an agreement; basically against Germany
FERDINAND
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne; was assassinated in Sarajevo; started WWI
ISOLATIONISM
not becoming involved in global or regional events
WILHELM II
Germany; dismissed Bismarck; didnt renew Bismarck's treaty with Russia and "forced" Russia to look for another ally, France
LENIN
believed in Marxist Socialism; capitalism must be destroyed; sooial revolution was possible in backward Russia; the need for highly trained workers controlled by revolutionaries like himself
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
allies worked out terms for peace with Germany; after United Nations
LUSITANIA
sunk by a German submarine; 139 Americans killed; forced Germany to stop submarine warfare
BATTLE OF THE MARNE
major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI; in reality lost Germany the war.
MOROCCO CRISIS
after the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference; German bullying forced England and France closer; Germany gained nothing
NICHOLAS II
the last tsar; wanted supreme role of army and government; led the armies to defeat; forced to abdicate by the Duma.
PRINCIP
assassin of Ferdinand of Austria; a member of the Black Hand
TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK
Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war; Russia lost 1/3 of population; German success; signed by Lenin.
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
Big Three; Germany was stripped of colonies; Alsace and Loraine given back to France; Poland was reconstituted as a state; Polish corridor would split Prussia from Germany; Saar region would be French for 15 years; heavy repercussions (not specif'led until later)
BATTLE OF VERDUN
German assault on the French fortress; turned into a battle of weakening; France won.
TRIPLE ENTENTE
1914; Great Britain, France, and Russia
WILSON'S FOURTEEN POINTS
President Wilson's peace proposal in 1918; national self-determination; rights of small countries; freedom of the seas and free trade; Clemenceau said, "God only had ten. "
WOODROW WILSON
U.S. President; who led USA into WWI; proposed the 14 points; attended the peace conference at Versailles
ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM
German Arthur Zimmerman; telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President help from Germany if Mexico went to war with the U.S; telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British; shocked the American public
BLOODY SUNDAY
Russia 1905; Russian soldiers suddenly opened fire on demonstrators; turning them against the tsar; possibly the start of the Revolution
BOLSHEVIKS
Lenin's majority group; tough, disciplined, revolutionary; apperaled to soldiers &urban workers
CHEKA
secret police set up by Lenin; arrested "enemies of the revolution"
DECEMBRIST REVOLT
uprising in Russia; mainly soldiers; inspired by ideology
DUMA
popular parliament
FUNDAMENTAL LAWS
Russian government; tsar retained great power; Duma was elected by universal male suffirage; Upper House could pass laws but the Tsar had veto power
KERENSKY
head of Provisional Government; refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants; thought fighting the war was a national duty
KRONSTADT REVOLT
rebellion of previously loyal sailors at the naval base; suppressed by the military; after the revolt Lenin introduced the N.E.P.
MARCH REVOLUTION
Bolsheviks become the leaders of Russia
MENSHEVIKS
'Minority group'
MIR
peasant village assembly responsible to the government
OCTOBER MANFIESTO
Russia; fear of a general strike; granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma
"PEACE, BREAD, AND LAND"
Lenin's slogan in the Revolution; peace from the war; land for the peasants; food for all
CAUSE OF WWI
Archduke Ferinand [heir to throne of Austria] assasinated in Bosnia by Serbian nationalists
BENITO MUSSOLINI
Italian fascism; attacked democracy &supported dictatorship; extreme nationalism; "believe, fight, &obey"; reduced unemplyoment
HITLER
suspends civil liberties; destroyed democracy; promised to restore greatness to Germany; wrote Mein Kamp [My Struggle] which outlined goals of Nazism
STORM TROOPERS
Brown Shirts; organized by Hitler; personal army to fight Communists