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133 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
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A/AN
not, without
amoral: neither moral nor immoral
atheist: one who does not believe in God
atypical: not typical
anonymous: of unknown authorship or origin
apathy: lack of interest or emotion
atrophy: the wasting away of body tissue
anomaly: an irregularity
agnostic: one who questions the existence of God
AB/ABS
from, away, apart, off, down
abduct: taken by force
abhor: to hate, detest
abolish: to do away with, make void
abstract: conceived apart from concrete realtities, specific objects, or actual instances
abnormal: deviating from a standard
abdicate: to renounce or relinquish a throne
abstinence: forbearance from any indulgence of appetite
abstruse: hard to understand, secret, hidden
ABLE/IBLE
capable of, worthy of
changeable, durable, indubitable, inevitable, infallible, irreducible, laudable, tolerable, variable
AC/ACR
sharp, sour, bitter
acid: something that is sharp, sour or ill natured
acute: sharp at the end, ending in a point
acerbic: sour or astringent in taste; harsh in temper
acrid: sharp or biting to the taste or smell
acrimonious: caustic, stinging, or bitter in nature
exacerbate: to increase in bitterness or violence; aggravate
ACOU
hearing
acoustic
AD/A/AL
to, toward, near
adapt: adjust or modify fittingly
adjacent: near, close, or contiguous; adjoining
addict: to give oneself over, as to a habit or pursuit
admire: to regard with wonder, pleasure, and approval
address: to direct a speech or written statement to
adhere: to stick fast; cleave; cling
adjoin: to be close or in contact with
advocate: to plead in favor of
ACT/AG
to do; to drive; to force; to lead
agile: quick and well coordinated in movement; active, lively
agitate: to move or force into violent, irregular action
litigate: to make the subject of a lawsuit
prodigal: prodigal: wastefully or recklessly extravagant
pedagogue: a teacher
synagogue: a gathering or congregation of Jews for the purpose of religious worship
AMBI/AMPHI
both, on both sides, around
ambiguous: open to various interpretations
amphibian: any cold blooded vertebrate, the larva of which is aquatic and the adult of which is terrestrial' a person or thing having a twofold nature
ambidextrous: able to use both hands equally well
AL/ALI/ALTER
other, another
alternative: a possible choice
alias: an assumed name; another name
alibi: the defense by which an accused person that he or she was verifiably elsewhere at the time of the crime with which he or she is charged
alian: one born in another counter; a foreigner
alter ego: the second self; a substitute or deputy
altruist: a person unselfishly concerned for the welfare of others
allegory: figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another
AM
love
amateur: a person who engages in an activity for pleasure rather than financial or professional gain
amatory: of or pertaining to lovers or lovemaking
amenity: agreeable ways or manners
amorous: inclined to love, esp. sexual love
enamored: inflamed with love; charmed; captivated
amity: friendship; peaceful; harmony
inamorata: a female lover
amiable: having or showing agreeable personal qualities
amicable: characterized by exhibiting good will
AMB/AMBL/AMBUL
to go, to walk
ambient: moving freely; circulating
ambitious: desirous of achieving or obtaining power
preamble: an introductory statement
ambassador: an authorized messenger or representative
ambulance: a wheeled vehicle equipped for carrying sick people, usually to a hospital
ambulatory: of, pertaining to, or capable of walking
ambush: the act of lying concealed so as to attack by surprise
perambulator: one who makes a tour of inspection on foot
ANIM
of the life, mind, soul, spirit
unanimous: in complete accord
animosity: a feeling of ill will or enmity
animus: hostile feeling or attitude
equanimity: mental or emotional stability, especially under tension
magnanimous: generous in forgiving an insult or injury
ANNUI/ENNI
year
annual: of, for, or pertaining to a year; yearly
anniversary: the yearly recurrence of the date of a past event
annuity: a specified income payable at stated intervals
perennial: lasting for an indefinite amount of time
annals: a record of events, esp a yearly record
ANT/ANTE
before
anterior: placed before
antecedent: existing, being, or going before
antedate: precede in time
antebellum: before the war (especially the American Civil War)
antediluvian:belonging to the period before the biblical flood; very old or old fashioned
ANTHRO/ANDR
man, human
anthropology: the science that deals with the origins of humankind
android: robot; mechanical man
misanthrope: one who hates humans or humanity
philanderer: one who carries on flirtations
androgynous: being both male and female
androgen: any substance that promotes masculing characteristics
anthropocentric: regarding humanity as the central fact of the universe
ANT/ANTI
against, opposite
antibody: a protein naturally existing in blood serum that reacts to overcome the toxic effects of an antigen
antidote: a remedy for counteracting the effects of poison, disease, etc
antiseptic: free from germs; particularly clean or neat
antipathy: aversion
antipodal: on the opposite side of the globe
APO
away
apology: an expression of one's regret or sorrow for having wronged another
apostle: one of the 12 disciples sent forth by Jesus to preach the gospel
apocalypse: revelation; discovery; disclosure
apogee: the highest or most distant point
apocryphal: of doubtful authorship or authenticity
apostasy: a total desertion of one's religion, principles, party, cause, etc
ARCH/ARCHI/ARCHY
chief, principal, ruler
architect: the devisor, maker, or planner of anything
archenemy: chief enemy
monarchy: a government in which the supreme power is lodged in a sovereign
anarchy: a state or society without government or law
oligarchy: a state or society ruled by a select group
AQUA/AQUE
water
aquamarine, aquarium, aquatic, aquatint, aqueduct, subaqueous
ARD
burn
ardent, ardor, arson
BEL/BELL
beautiful
belle, embellish
AUTO/AUT
self
automatic: self moving or self acting
autocrat: an absolute ruler
autonomy: independence or freedom
BE
to be; to have a particular quality; to exist
belittle: to regard something as less impressive than it apparently is
bemoan: to express pity for
bewilder: to confuse or puzzle completely
belie: to misrepresent; to contradict
BEL/BELL
war
antebellum: before the war
rebel: a person who resists authority, control, or tradition
belligerent: warlike, given to waging war
BEN/BON/BENE/BOUN
well, good, generous
benefit: anything advantageous to a person or thing
benign: having a kindly diposition
benediction: act of uttering a blessing
benevolent: desiring to do good to others
bonus: something given over and above what is due
bona fide: in good faith; without fraud
BI/BIN
two, twice
binocular: involving two eyes
biennial: happening every two years
bilateral: pertaining to or affecting two or both sides
bilingual: able to speak one's native language and another with equal facility
bipartisan: representing two parties
CAD/CID
to fall; to happen by chance
accident: happening by chance; unexpected
coincidence: a striking occurrence of two or more events at one time, apparently by chance
decadent: decaying; deteriorating
cascade: a waterfall descending over a steep surface
recidivist: one who repeatedly relapses, as into crime
CANT/CENT/CHANT
to sing
accent: prominence of a syllable in terms of pronunciation
chant: a song; singing
enchant: to subject to magical influence; bewitch
recant: to withdraw or disavow a statement
incantation: the chanting of words purporting to have magical power
incentive: that which incites action
CAP/CIP/CEPT
to take; to get
capture: to take by force or stratagem
anticipate: to realize beforehand; foretaste or foresee
susceptible: capable of receiving, admitting, undergoing, or being affected by something
emancipate: to free from restraint
percipient: having perception; discerning; discriminating
precept: a commandment or direction given as a rule of conduct
CAP/CAPIT/CIPIT
head, headlong
capital: the city or town that is the official seat of government
disciple: one who is a pupil of the doctrines of another
precipitate: to hasten the occurrence of; to bring about prematurely
precipice: a cliff with a vertical face
capitulate: to surrender unconditionally or on stipulated terms
caption: a heading or title
BREV/BRID
short, small
abbreviate, abridge, brevet, breviary, breviloquent, brevity, brief
BURS
purse, money
bursar, bursary, disburse, reimburse
CAUS/CAUT
burn
caustic, cauterize, cautery, encaustic, holocaust
CELER
speed
accelerate, celerity, decelerate
CENT
hundred, hundredth
bicentennial, cent, centennial, centigrade, centigram, centiliter, centimeter, centipede, century, percent
CHROM
color
chromatic, chrome, chromosome, monochromatic
CONTRA/CONTRO/COUNTER
against
contradict, contrary, controversy, counter, counteract, counterattack, counterfeit, countermand, counterpart, counterpoint, encounter
CARD/CORD/COUR
heart
cardiac: pertaining to the heart
encourage: to inspire with spirit or confidence
concord: agreement; peace, amity
discord: lack of harmony between persons or things
concordance: agreement, concord, harmony
CARN
flesh
carnivorous: eating flesh
carnage: the slaughter of a great number of people
carnival: a traveling amusement show
reincarnation: rebirth of a soul in a new body
incarnation: a being invested with a bodily form
CAST/CHAST
cut
cast: to throw or hurl; fling
caste: a hereditary social group, limited to people of the same rank
castigate: to punish in order to correct
chastise: to discipline, esp. by corporal punishment
chaste: free from obscenity; decent
CED/CEED/CESS
to go; to yield; to stop
antecedent: existing, being, or going before
concede: to acknowledge as true, just or proper; admit
predecessor: one who comes before another in an office, position, etc
cessation: a temporary or complete discontinuance
incessant: without stop
CENTR
center
concentrate: to bring to a common center; to converge, to direct toward one point
eccentric: off center
concentric: having a common center, as in circles or spheres
centrifuge: an apparatus that rotates at high speed that separates substances of different densities using centrifugal force
centrist: of or pertaining to moderate political or social ideas
CERN/CERT/CRET/CRIM/CRIT
to separate; to judge; to distinguish; to decide
discrete: detached from others, separate
ascertain: to make sure of; to determine
certitude: freedom from doubt
discreet: judicious in one's conduct of speech, esp. with regard to maintaining silence about something of a delicate nature
hypocrite: a person who pretends to have beliefs that she does not
criterion: a standard of judgment or criticism
CHRON
time
synchronize: to occur at the same time or agree in time
chronology: the sequential order in which past events occurred
anachronism: an obsolete or archaic form
chronic: constant, habitual
chronometer: a time piece with a mechanism to adjust for accuracy
CIRCU/CIRCUM
around, on all sides
circumference: the outer boundary of a circular area
circumstances: the existing conditions or state of affairs surrounding and affecting an agent
circuit: the act of going or moving around
circumambulate: to walk about or around
circuitous: roundabout, indirect
CIS
to cut
scissors: cutting instrument for paper
precise: definitely stated or defined
exorcise: to seek to expel an evil spirit by ceremony
incision: a cut, gash, or notch
incisive: penetrating, cutting
CLA/CLO/CLU
shut, close
conclude: to bring to an end; finish; to terminate
claustrophobia: an abnormal fear of enclosed places
disclose: to make known, reveal, or uncover
exclusive: not admitting of something else; shutting out others
cloister: a courtyard bordered with covered walks, esp in a religious institution
preclude: to prevent the presence, existence or occurrence of
CORP/CORS
body
corporate, corps, corpse, corpulent, corpus, corpuscle, corset, incorporation
COSM
order, universe, world
cosmetic, cosmic, cosmology, cosmonaut, cosmopolitan, cosmos, microcosm
CYN/CAN
dog
canine, cynic
DELE
erase
dele, delete, indelible
DEXT
right hand, right side
ambidextrous, dexterity, dexterous
DI
day
dial, diary, dismal, diurnal, meridian, quotidian
CLAIM/CLAM
to shout; to cry out
exclaim: to cry out or speak suddenly and vehemently
proclaim: to announce or declare in an official way
clamor: a loud uproar
disclaim: to deny interest in or connection with
reclaim: to claim or demand the return of a right or possession
CLI
to lean toward
decline: to cause to slope or incline downward
recline: to lean back
climax: the most intense point in the development of something
proclivity: inclination, bias
disinclination: aversion, distaste
CO/COL/COM/CON
with, together
connect: to bind or fasten together
coerce: to compel by force, intimidation, or authority
compatible: capable of existing together in harmony
collide: to strike one another with a forceful impact
collaborate: to work with another, cooperate
conciliate: to placate, win over
commensurate: suitable in measure, proportionate
COUR/CUR
running; a course
recur: to happen again
curriculum: the regular course of study
courier: a messenger traveling in haste who bears news
excursion: a short journey or trip
cursive: handwriting in flowing strokes with the letters joined together
concur: to accord in opinion; agree
incursion: a hostile entrance into a place, esp suddenly
cursory: going rapidly over something; hasty; superficial
CRE/CRESC/CRET
to grow
accrue: to be added as a matter of periodic gain
creation: the act of producing or causing to exist
increase: to make greater in any respect
increment: something added or gained; an addition or increase
accretion: an increase by natural growth
CRED
to believe; to trust
incredible: unbelievable
credentials: anything that provides the basis for belief
credo: any formula of belief
credulity: willingness to believe or trust too readily
credit: trustworthiness
CRYP
hidden
crypt: a subterranean chamber or vault
apocryphal: of doubtful authorship or authenticity
cryptology: the science of interpreting secret writings, codes, ciphers, and the like
cryptography: procedures of making and using secret writing
DORM
sleep
dormant, dormitory
DORS
back
dorsal, endorse
DULC
sweet
dulcet, dulcified, dulcimer
EGO
self
ego, egocentric, egoism, egotist
FAL
liable to err, to deceive
default, fail, fallacy, false, fauc pas, infallible
FATU
foolish
fatuity, fatuous, infatuate
FERN
boil
effervescent, fervent, fervid, fervor
FUG
flee
centrifuge, fugitive, fugue, refuge, refugee, subterfuge
FUM
smoke
fume, fumigate, perfume
CULP
blame
culprit: a person guilty for an offense
culpable: deserving blame or censure
inculpate: to charge with fault
mea culpa: through my fault; my fault
DAC/DOC
to teach
doctor: someone license to practice medicine; a learned person
doctrine: a particular principle advocated, as of a government or religion
indoctrinate: to imbue a person with learning
docile: easily managed or handled; tractable
didactic: intended for instruction
DE
away, off, down, completely, reversal
descend: to move from a higher to a lower place
decipher: to make out the meaning; to interpret
defile: to make foul, dirty, or unclean
defame: to attack the good name or reputation of
deferential: respectful; to yield to judgment
delineate: to trace the outline of; sketch or trace in outline
DEM
people
democracy: government by the people
epidemic: affecting at the same tie a large number of people, and spreading from person to person
endemic: peculiar to a particular people or locality
pandemic: general, universal
demographics: vital and social statistics of populations
DI/DIA
apart, through, across
dialogue: conversation between two or more persons
diagnose: to determine the identity of something from the symptoms
dilate: to make wider or larger; to cause to expand
dilatory: inclined to delay or procrastinate
dichotomy: division into two parts, kinds, etc
DIC/DICT/DIT
to say; to tell; to use words
dictionary: a book containing a selection of the words of a language
predict: to tell in advance
verdict: judgement, decree
interdict: to forbid; prohibit
DIGN
worth
dignity: nobility or elevation of character; worthiness
dignitary: a person who holds a high rank or office
deign: to think fit or in accordance with one's dignity
condign: well deserved; fitting; adequate
disdain: to look upon or treat with contempt
DIS/DIF
away from, apart, reversal, not
disperse: to drive or send off in various directions
disseminate: to scatter or spread widely; promulgate
dissipate: to scatter wastefully
dissuade: to deter by advice or persuasion
diffuse: to pour out and spread, as in a fluid
DOG/DOX
opinion
orthodox: sound or correct in opinion or doctrine
paradox: an opinion or statement contrary to accepted opinion
dogma: a system of tenets, as of a church
DOL
suffer, pain, grieve
condolence: expression of sympathy with one who is suffering
indolence: a state of being lazy or slothful
doleful: sorrowful, mournful
dolorous: full of pain or sorrow, grievous
DON/DOT/DOW
to gibe
donate: to present as a gift or contribution
pardon: kind indulgence, forgiveness
antidote: something that prevents or counteracts ill effects
anecdote: a short narrative about an interesting event
endow: to provide with a permanent fund
DUB
doubt
dubious: doubtful
dubiety: doubtfulness
indubitable: unquestionable
DUC/DUCT
to lead
abduct: to carry off or lead away
conduct: personal behavior, way of acting
conducive: contributive, helpful
induce: to lead or move by influence
induct: to install in a position with formal ceremonies
produce: to bring into existence; give cause to
DUR
hard, lasting
endure: to hold out against; to sustain without yielding
durable: able to resist decay
duress: compulsion by threat, coercion
dour: sullen, gloomy
duration: the length of time something exists
DYS
faulty, abnormal
dystrophy: faulty or inadequate nutrition or development
dyspepsia: impaired digestion
dyslexia: an impairment of the ability to read due to a brain defect
dysfunctional: poor functioning
E/EF/EX/EC
out, out of, from, former, completely
evade: to escape from, avoid
exclude: to shut out; to leave out
extricate: to disentangle, release
exonerate: to free or declare free from blame
expire: to come to an end, cease to be valid
EPI
upon
epidemic: affecting a large number of people at the same time and spreading from person to person
epilogue: a concluding part added to a literary work
epidermis: the outer layer of the skin
epigram: a witty or pointed saying tersely expressed
epithet: a word or phrase, used invectively as a term of abuse
EQU
equal, even
equation: the act of making equal
adequate: equal to the requirement or occasion
equidistant: equally distant
iniquity: gross injustice; wickedness
ERR
to wander
err: to go astray in thought or belief, to be mistaken
error: a deviation from accuracy or correctness
erratic: deviating from the proper or usual course in conduct
arrant: downright, thorough, notorious
ESCE
becoming
adolescent: between childhood and adulthood
obsolescent: becoming obsolete
incandescent: glowing with heat, shining
convalescent: recovering from illness
reminiscent: reminding or suggestive of
EU
good, well
euphemism: pleasant sounding term for something unpleasant
eulogy: speech or writing in praise or commendation
eugenics: improvement of qualities of race by control of inherited characteristics
euthanasia: killing a person painlessly, usually one who has an incurable, painful disease
euphony: pleasantness of sound
ERR
wander
aberration, errant, erratic, erroneous, error
EXTRA
outside, beyond
extraordinary: beyond the ordinary
extract: to take out, obtain against a person's will
extradite: to hand over (person accused of crime) to state where crime was committed
extrasensory: derived by means other than known senses
extrapolate: to estimate (unknown facts or values) from known data)
FAB/FAM
speak
fable: fictional tale, esp legendary
affable: friendly, courteous
ineffable; too great for description in words; that which must not bet uttered
famous: well known, celebrated
defame: attack good name of
FAC/FIC/FIG/FAIT/FEIT/FY
to do; to make
factory: building for manufacture of goods
faction: small dissenting group within larger one, esp in politics
deficient: incomplete or insufficient
prolific: producing many offspring or much output
configuration: manner of arrangement, shape
ratify: to confirm or accept by formal consent
effigy: sculpture or model of person
counterfeit: imitation, forgery
FER
to bring; to carry; to bear
offer: to present for acceptance, refusal, or consideration
confer: to grant, bestow
referendum: to vote on political question open to the entire electorate
proffer: to offer
proliferate: to reproduce; produce rapidly
FERV
to boil, to bubble
fervor: passion, zeal
fervid: ardent, intense
effervescent: with the quality of giving off bubbles of gas
FI/FID
faith
confide: to entrust with a secret
affidavit: written statement on oath
fidelity: faithfulness, loyalty
fiduciary: of a trust; held or given in trust
infidel: disbeliever in the supposed true religion
FIN
end
final: at the end; coming last
confine: to keep or restrict with certain limits; imprison
definitive: decisive, unconditional, final
infinite: boundless; endless
infinitesimal: infinitely or very small
FLAG/FLAM/FLAGR/FULG/FULM
to burn
flammable: easily set on fire
flambeau: a lighted torch
flagrant: blatant, scandalous
conflagration: a large destructive fire
FLECT/FLEX
to bend, turn
deflect: to bend or turn aside from a purpose
flexible: able to bend without breaking
inflect: to change or vary pitch of
reflect: to throw back
genuflect: to bend knee, esp in worship
FLU/FLUX
to flow
fluid: substance, esp gas or liquid, capable of flowing freely
fluctuation: something that varies, rising and falling
effluence: flowing out of (light, electricity, etc)
confluence: merging into one
mellifluous: pleasing, musical
FORE
before
foresight: care or provision for future
foreshadow: be warning or indication of (future event)
forestall: to prevent by advance action
forthright: straightforward, outspoken, decisive
FORT
chance
fortune: chance or luck in human affairs
fortunate: lucky, auspicious
fortuitous: happening by luck
FORT
strength
fortify: to provide with fortifications; strengthen
fortissimo: very loud
forte: strong point; something a person does well
FRA/FRAC/FRAG/FRING
to break
fracture: breakage, esp of a bone
fragment: a part broken off
fractious: irritable, peevish
refractory: stubborn, unmanageable, rebellious
infringe: to break or violate (a law etc)
FUS
to pour
profuse: lavish, extravagant, copious
fusillade: continuous discharge of firearms or outburst of criticism
suffuse: to spread throughout or over from within
diffuse: to spread widely or thinly
infusion: infusing; liquid extract so obtained
GRAM/GRAPH
write, draw
anagram, diagram, epigram, epigraph, grammar, grammarian, gramophone, graph, graphic, graphite, phonograph, photograph, program, telegram
GREG
flock
aggregate, congregate, egregious, gregarious, segregate
HAP
by chance
haphazard, hapless, happen, happily, happy, mayhap, mishap
HEMI
half
hemiptera, hemisphere, hemistich
HOL
whole
catholic, holocaust, hologram, holograph, holistic
HUM
earth
exhume, humble, humility, posthumous
ICON
image, idol
icon, iconic, iconoclast, iconography, iconology
INTRA
inside, within
intramural, intrastate, intravenous
IT/ITER
way, journey
ambition, circuit, initial, itinerant, itinerary, reiterate, transit
JOC
joke
jocose, jocular, jocularity, jocund, joke
JOUR
day
adjourn, journal, journey
JUD
judge
abjudicate, judiciary, judicious, prejudice
JUG/JUNCT
join
abjunct, conjugal, conjunction, injunction, junction, junta, subjugate, subjunctive
JUV
young
juvenile, juvenilia, rejuvenate
LANG/LING
tongue
bilingual, language, linguistics
LAUD
praise
applaud, cum laude, laud, laudable, laudatory, plaudits
LAX/LAK/LEAS/LES
loose
lax, laxative, laxity, lease, leash, lessee, lessor, relax, release
LI/LIG
tie, bind
ally, league, liable, liaison, lien, ligament, ligature, oblique, religion, rely
GEN
birth, creation, race, kind
generous: giving or given freely
genetics: study of heredity and variation among animals and plants
gender: classification roughly corresponding to the two sexes and sexlessness
carcinogenic: producing cancer
congenital: existing or as such from birth
progeny: offspring, descendants
miscegenation: inbreeding of races
GN/GNO/GNI/COGN/CONN
to know
agnostic: person who believes that the existence of God is not provable
ignore: to refuse to take notice of
ignoramus: a person lacking knowledge, uninformed
recognize: to identify as already known
incognito: with one's name or identity concealed
prognosis: to forecast, especially of disease
diagnose: to make an identification of disease or fault from symptoms
GRAD/GRESS
to step
progress: forward movement
aggressive: given to hostile act or feeling
degrade: to humiliate, dishonor, reduce to lower rank
digress: to depart from main subject
egress: going out; way out
regress: to move backward, revert to an earlier state
GRAT
pleasing
grateful: thankful
ingratiate: to bring oneself into favor
gratuity: money given for good service
gracious: kind, esp to inferiors; merciful
HER/HES
to stick
coherent: logically consistent; having waves in phase and of one wavelength
adhesive: tending to remain in memory; sticky; an adhesive substance
inherent: involved in the constitution or essential character of something
adherent: able to adhere; believer or advocate of a particular thing
heredity: the qualities genetically derived from one's ancestors and the transmission of those qualities
(H)ETERO
different
heterosexual: of or pertaining to sexual orientation toward members of the opposite sex; relating to different sexes
heterogeneous: of other origin; not originating in the body
heterodox: different from acknowledged standard; holding unorthodox opinions or doctrines
(H)OM
same
homogeneous: of the same or a similar kind of nature; of uniform structure of composition throughout
homonym: one of two or more words spelled and pronounced alike but different in meaning
homosexual: of, relating to, or exhibiting sexual desire toward a member of one's own sex
anomaly: deviation from the common rule
homeostasis: a relatively stable state of equilibrium
HYPER
over, excessive
hyperactive: excessively active
hyperbole: purposeful exaggeration for effect
hyperglycemia: an abnormally high concentration of sugar in the blood
HYPO
under, beneath, less than
hypodermic: relating to the parts beneath the skin
hypochondriac: one affected by extreme depression of mind or spirits often centered on imaginary physical ailments
hypocritical: affecting virtues or qualities one does not have
hypothesis: assumption subject to proof