Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/210

Click to flip

210 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
inductive
pertaining to induction or proceeding from the specific to the general. The discovery of the planet Pluto is an exceelent example of the results that can be obtained from inductive reasoning.
induce
persuade; bring about. After the quarrel, Tina said nothign could induce her to talk to Tony again.
indubitable
unable to be doubted; unqeustionable. Auditioning for the chorus line, Molly was an indubitable hit: the director fired the leading lady and hired Molly in her place!
indomitable
unconquerable; unyielding. Focusing on her game despite all her personal problems, tennis champion Steffi Graf displayed an indomitable will to win
indolent
lazy. Couch potatoes lead an indolent life lying back in their lazyboy recliners watching TV
indite
write; compose. Cyrano indited many letters for Christian.
indissoluble
permanent. The indissoluble bonds of marriage are all too often being dissolved
indisputable
too certain to be disputed. In the face of these indisputable statements, I withdraw my complaint.
indiscriminate
choosing at random: confused. She disapproved of her son's indiscriminate television viewing and decided to restrict him to educational programs
indignity
offensive or insulting teatment. Although he seemed to accept cheerfully the indinities heaped upon him, he was inwardly very angry.
indignation
anger at an injustice. She felt indignation at the ill-treatment of the helpless animals
indigent
poor; destitute. Someone who is truly indigent can't even afford to buy a pack of cigarettes (P.S Don't mix up indigent and indigenous.
indigenous
native. Cigarettes are made of tobacco, a plant indigenous to the new world.
indigence
poverty. Neither the economists nor the political scientists have found a way to wipe out the inequities of wealth and eliminate indigence from our society.
indifferent
unmoved or unconcerned by; mediocre. Because Ann felt no desire to marry, she was indifferent to Carl's constant proposals. Not only was she indifferent to him personally, but she felt that, given his general inanity, he would make an indifferent husband
indict
charge. The district attorney didn't want to indict the suspect until she was sure she had a strong enough case to convince a jury
indices
signs; indications. Many college admissions officers believe that the SAT scores and high schol grades are the best indices of a student's potential to succeed in college
indicative
suggestive; implying. A lack of appetite may be indicative of a majoyr mental or physical disorder.
indeterminate
uncertain; not clearly fixed; indefinite. That interest rates shalll rise appears certain; when they will do so, however, remains indeterminate
indenture
bind as servant or apprentice to master. Many immigrants could come to America only after they had indentured themselves for several years.
indentation
notch; deep recess. YOu can tell one tree from another by noting the differences in the indentations along the edges of the leaves.
indemnify
make secure against loss; compensate for loss. The city will indemniy all home oweners whose property is spoiled by this project.
indellible
not able to be erased. The indelible ink left a permanenet mark on my shift. Young BIll Clinton's meeting with President Kennedy made an indelible impression on the youth.
indefatigable
tireless. Although the effort of taking out the garbage exhausted Wayne for the entire morning, when it came to partying, he was indefatigable
incursion
temporary invasion. The nightly incursions and hit-and -run raids of our negighbors across the border tried the patience of the country to the point where we decided to retaliate in force
incur
bring upon oneself.His parents refused to pay any future debtshe might incur
incumbent
obligatory; crrently holding an office. It is incumbent upon all incumbent elected officials to keep accurate records of expenses incurred in office
inculcate
teach. In an effort to inculcate religious devotion, the officials ordered that the school day ebgin witht he singing of a hymn
incubus
burden; mental care; nightmare. The incubus of financial worry helped bring on her nervous breakdown.
incubate
hatch. Inasmuch as our supply of electricity is cut off, we shall have to rely on the hens to incubate these eggs
incrustation
hard coating or crust. In dry dock, we scraped off the incrustation of dirt and barnacles that covered the hull of the ship
incriminate
accuse; serve as evidence against. The witness's testimony against the racketeers incriminates some high public officials as well
increment
increase. The new contract calls for a ten percent increment in salary for each employee for the next two years.
incredulous
withholding belief; sketpical. When Jack claimed he hadn't eaten the jelly doughnut, Jill took an incredulous look at his smeared face and laughed
incredulity
tendency to disbelief. Your incredulity in the face of all the evidence is hard to understand
incorrigible
uncorrectable. Though Widow Douglass hoped to reform Huck, Miss Watson pronounced him incorrigible and said he would come to no good end.
incorporeal
lacking a material body; insubstantial. Although Casper the friendly ghost is an incorporeal being, he and his fellow ghosts make quite an impact on the physical world
incorporate
introduce something into a larger whole; combine; unite. reaking with precedent, President Truman ordered the military to incorporate blacks into every brnch of the armed services.
incontrovertible
indisputable; not open to question. Unless you find the evidence against my client absolutely incontrovertible, you must delare her not guilty of this charge
incontinent
lacking self-restraint; licentious. HIs incontinent behavior off stage so shocked many people that they refused to attend the plays and movies in which he appeared.
inconsistency
state of being self-contradictory; lack of uniformity or steadiness. How are lawyers different from agricultural inspectors? where lawyers check inconsistencies in witnesses' statements, agricultural inspectors check inconsistencies in Grade A eggs
inconsequential
insignificant; unimportant. Brushing off Ali's apologies for having broken the wine glass, Tamara said, "Don't worry about it; it's inconsequential'.
incongruity
lack of harmony; absurdity. The incongruity of his wearing sneakers with formal attire amused the observers
incompatible
inharmonious. The married couple argued incessantly and finally decide to separate because they were incompatible
incommodious
not spacious; inconvenient. In their incommodious quarters, they had to improvise for closet space
incoherent
unintelligible; muddled' illogical. The excited fan blushed and stammered, her words becoming almost incoherent in the thrill of meeting her favorite rock star face to face
incognito
with identity concealed; using an assumed name. The monarch enjoyed traveling through the town incognito and mingling with the populace
inclusive
tending to include all. The comedian turned down the invitation to join the Players' CLub, saying any club that would let him in was too inclusive for him
inclined
tending or leaning toward; bent. Though I am inclined to be skeptical, the witness's manner inclines me to believe his story.
incline
slope; slant. The architect recommended that the nursing home's ramp be rebuilt because its incline was too steep for wheelchairs.
inclement
stormy; unkind. In inclement weather, I like to curl up on the sofa with a good book and listen to the storm blowing outside
incite
arouse to afction; goad; motivate; induce to exist. In a fiery speech, Mario incited his fellow students to go out on strike to protest the university's anti-affirmative-action stand
incisive
cutting; sharp. Her incisve remarks made us see the fallacy in our plans
incipient
begining; in an early stage. I will go to sleep early for I want to break an incipient cold
incidental
not essential; minor. The scholarship covered his major expenses at college and some of his incidental expenses as well
incidence
rate of occurrence; particular occurrence. Health propfessionals expressed great concern over the high incidence of infant mortality in major urban areas
inchoate
recent begun; rudimentary; elementary. Before the Creation, the world was an inchoate mass.
incessant
uninterrpted; unceasing. In a famous TV commercial, the frogs' incessant croaching goes on and on until eventually it turns into a single word: "Bud-weis-er'
inception
start; beginning. She was involved with the project from its inception
incentive
spur; motive. Mike's strong desire to outshine his big sister was all the incentive he needed to do well in school
incense
enrage; infuriate. Cruelty to defnseless animals incensed Kit: the very idea brought tears of anger to her eyes.
incendiary
arsonist, the person who lit the fire. The fire spread in such an unusual manner that the fire department chiefs were certain that it had been set by an incendiary
incarnation
act of assuming a human body and human nature. The incarnation of Jesus Christ is a basic tenet of Christian theology
incarnate
endowed with flesh; personified. Your attitude is so fienish that you must be a devil incarnate
incarcerate
imprision. The civil rights workers were willing to be arrested and even incarcerated if by their imprisonmentthey could serve the cause
incapacitate
disable. During the winter, many people were incapacitated by respiratory ailments
incantation
singing or chanting of majic spells; magical formula. Uttering incantations to make the brw more poten,the withc doctor stirred the liquid in the caldron.
incandescent
strikingly bright; shining with intense heat. If you leave on an incadescent light bulb, it quicly grows too hot to touch.
inaugurate
begin formally; install in office. The candidate promised that he would inaugurate a new nationwide health care plan as soon as he was inaugurated as president
inarticulate
speechles; producing indistinct speech. She became inarticulate with rage and uttered sounds without meaning
inanimate
lifeless. She was asked to identify the still and inanimate body.
inane
silly; senseless. There's no point in what you're saying. Why are you bothering to make such inane remarks? inanity N
inalienable
not to be taken away; nontransferable. The Declaration of Independence mentions the inalienable rights that all of us possess.
inadvertently
unintentionally; by oversight; carelessly. Judy's great fear was that she might inadvertently omit a question on the exam and mismark her whole answer sheet
impute
attribute; ascribe. If I wished to impute blame to the officers in charge of this problem, I would state m feelings definitely and immediately
impunity
freedom from punishment or harm. A 98 pound weakling can't attack a beachfront bully with impunit: the poor, puny guy is sue to get mashed.
impuissance
powerlessness; feebleness. The lame duck president was frustrated by his shift from enormous power to relative impuissance
impugn
dispute or contradict (often in an insulting way); challenge; gainsay. Our treasurer was furious when the finance committee's report impugned the accuracy of his financial records and recommended that he take bonehead math.
impudence
impertinence; insolence, thick face skin, bare face. Kissed on the cheek by a perfect stranger, Lady Catherine exclaimed: 'Of all the nerve! young man. I should have you horsewhipped for your impudence."
imprudent
lacking caution; injudicious. It is imprudent to exercise vigorously and become voerheated when you are unwell
improvise
compose on the spur of the moment
improvident
thriftless, don't know how to save money. He was constantly being warned to mend his improvident ways and begin to 'save for a rainy day' improvidence N.
impropriety
improperness; unsuitableness. Because of the impropriety of the punk rocker's slashed tee shirt and jeans, the management refused to admit him to the hote's very formal dining room.
impromptu
without previous prepartaion; off the cuff; on the spur of the moment. THe judges were amazed that she could make such a thorough, well-supported presentation in amn impromptu speech.
impregnable
invunerable, unbreakable, hard, strong. Until the development of the airplane as a military weapon, the fort was considered impregnable
imprecation
curse. Roused from bed at what he considered an ungodly hour, Roy muttered imprecations under his breath.
impotent
weak; ineffective. Although he wished to break the nicotine habit, he found himself impotent in resisting the craving for a cigarette.
imposture
assuming a false identity; masquerade. She was imprisoned for her imposture of a doctor.
importune
beg persistently. Democratic and Republican phone solicitors importuned her for contributions so frequently that she decided to give nothing to either party.
importunate
urging; demanding. He tried to hide from his importunate creditors until his allwance arrived
import
significance. I feel that you have not grasped the full import of the message sent to use by the enmy.
imponderable
weightless. I can evaluate the data gathered in this study; the imponderable items are not so easily analyzed
impolitic
not wise. I think it is impolitic to raise this issue at the present time because the public is too angry.
imply
suggest a meaning not expressed; signify. When Aunt Millie said, "My@ That's a big piece of pie, young man!" was she implying that Bobby was being a glutton in helping himself to such a huge piece?
implore
beg. He implored her to give him a second chance
implode
burst inward. If you break a vacuum tube, the glass tube implodes
implicit
understood but not stated. John never told christina he adored her; he believed his love was implicit in his deeds.
implication
something hinted at or suggested. When Miss Watson said she hadn't seen her purse since the last time Jim was in the house, the implication was that she suspected Jim had taken it
implicate
incriminate; show to be involved. Here's the deal; if you agree to take the witness stand and implicate your partners in crime, the prosecution will recommend that the judge goeasy in sentencing you
inplement
put tinto effect; supply wiht tools. The mayo was unwilling to implement the plan until she was sure it had the governor's backing
implausible
unlikely; unbelievable. Though her alibi seemed implausible; it in fact turned out to be true
implacable
incapable of being pacified. Madame Defarge was the implacable enmy of the Evremonde family
impious
irrelevant. The congregation was offended by her impious remarks
impinge
infringe; touc; collide with. How could they be married without impinging on one another's freedom?
impiety
irreverence; lack of respect fro God. When members of the youth group draped the cuhrch in toilet paper one Halloween, the minister reprimanded them for their impiety. impious ADJ
impetus
moving force; incentive; stimulus. A new federal highway program would create jobs and give added impetus to our economy recovery
impetuous
violent; hasty; rash. "leap before you look' was the motto suggested by one particulary impetuous young man."
impervious
impenetrable; incapable of being damaged or distressed. The carpet alesman told Simone that his most expensive brand of floor covering was warranted to be impervious to ordinary waear and tear. Having read so many neagtive reviews of his acting, the movie star had learned to ignore them, and was now impervious to criticism.
imperturbable
calm; placid. Wellington remained imperturbable and in full command of the situation in spite of the hysteria and panic all around him
impertinent
insolent; rude. His neighbors' impertinent curiousity about his lack of dates angered Ted. It was downright rude of them to ask him such personal questions.
impermeable
impervious; not permitting passage through its substance. This new material is impermeable to liquids
imperious
domineeering; haughty. Jane rather liked a man to be masterful, but Mr. Rochester seemed so bent on getting his own way that he was actually imperious!
imperial
like an emperor; related to an empire. When hotel owner leona Helmsley appeared in ads as Queen LEona standing guard over the Plaacehotel, her critics mocked her imperial fancies
imperceptible
unnoticeable; undetectable. Fortunately, the stain on the blouse was imperceptible after the garment had gone through the wash.
imperative
absolutely necessary; critically important. It is imperative that you be extremely agreeable to Great aunt maud when she comes to tea; otherwise she may not leave you that million dollars in her will
impenitent
not repentant. We could see by his brazen attitude that he was impenitent
impenetrable
not able to be pierced or entered beyond understanding. How could the murderer have gotten into the locked room? To Watson, the mystery, like the room, was impenetrable
impending
nearing; approaching. THe entire country was saddened by the news of his impending death.
impel
drive or force onward. A strong feeling of urency impelled her; if she failed to finish the project right then, she knew that she would never get it done
impediment
hindrance; stumbling-block. She had a pseech impediment that prevented her from speaking clearly
impetus
moving force; incentive; stimulus. A new federal highway program would create jobs and give added impetus to our economy recovery
impetuous
violent; hasty; rash. "leap before you look' was the motto suggested by one particulary impetuous young man."
impervious
impenetrable; incapable of being damaged or distressed. The carpet alesman told Simone that his most expensive brand of floor covering was warranted to be impervious to ordinary waear and tear. Having read so many neagtive reviews of his acting, the movie star had learned to ignore them, and was now impervious to criticism.
imperturbable
calm; placid. Wellington remained imperturbable and in full command of the situation in spite of the hysteria and panic all around him
impertinent
insolent; rude. His neighbors' impertinent curiousity about his lack of dates angered Ted. It was downright rude of them to ask him such personal questions.
impermeable
impervious; not permitting passage through its substance. This new material is impermeable to liquids
imperious
domineeering; haughty. Jane rather liked a man to be masterful, but Mr. Rochester seemed so bent on getting his own way that he was actually imperious!
imperial
like an emperor; related to an empire. When hotel owner leona Helmsley appeared in ads as Queen LEona standing guard over the Plaacehotel, her critics mocked her imperial fancies
imperceptible
unnoticeable; undetectable. Fortunately, the stain on the blouse was imperceptible after the garment had gone through the wash.
imperative
absolutely necessary; critically important. It is imperative that you be extremely agreeable to Great aunt maud when she comes to tea; otherwise she may not leave you that million dollars in her will
impenitent
not repentant. We could see by his brazen attitude that he was impenitent
impenetrable
not able to be pierced or entered beyond understanding. How could the murderer have gotten into the locked room? To Watson, the mystery, like the room, was impenetrable
impending
nearing; approaching. THe entire country was saddened by the news of his impending death.
impel
drive or force onward. A strong feeling of urency impelled her; if she failed to finish the project right then, she knew that she would never get it done
impediment
hindrance; stumbling-block, stutter. She had a pseech impediment that prevented her from speaking clearly
impede
hinder; block. The special prosecutor determined that the Attorney General, though inept, had not intentionally set out to impede the progress of the inveestigation
impecunious
without money. Though Scrooge claimed he was too impeunious to give alms, he easily could have afforded to be charitable
impeccable
faultness. The uncrowned queen of the fashion industry, Diana was acclaimed for her impeccable taste
impeach
charge with crime in office; indict. The angry congressman wanted to impeach the prsident for his misdeeds.
impassive
without feeling; imperturbable; stoical. Refusing to let the enmy see how deeply shaken he was by his capture, the prisoner kept his face impassive.
impasse
predicament from which there is no escape. In this impasse, all turned to prayer as their last hope.
impassable
not able to be traveled or crossed. A giant redwood had fallen across the highway, blocking all four lanes; the road was impassable
impartial
not biased; fair. Knowing she could not be impartial about her own child, Jo refused to judge any match in which Billy was competing
impalpable
imperceptible; intangible. The ash is so fine that it is impalpable to the touch but it can be seen as a fine layer covering the window ledge
impale
pierce. He was impaled by the spear hurled by his adversary
impair
injure; hurt. Drinking alchohol can impair your ability to drive safely; if you're going to drink, don't drive
immutable
unchangeable. All thigns chagne over time; nothign is immutable
immure
imprison; shut up in confinement. For the two weeks before the examination, the student immurd himself in his room and concentrated upon his studies
immune
resistant to; free or exempt from. Fortunately, Florence had contracted chicken pox as a child, and was immune to it when her baby came down with spots.
immolate
offer as a sacrifice. The tribal king offered to immolate his daughter to queit the angry gods
immobility
state of being immovable
imminent
near at hand; impending. The imminent Kingdom of God/ imminent kingdom of heaven.
immaculate
spotless; flawless; absolutely clean. Ken and Jessica were wonderful tenants who left the apartment in immaculate condition when they moved out
imbue
saturate, fill. His visits to the famous Gothic cathedrals imbued him with feelings of awe and reverence
imbroglio
complicated situation; painful or complex misunderstanding; entanglemtn; confused mass (as of papers). The humor of Shakespearen comedies often depends on cases of mistaken identity that involve the perplexed protagonists in one comic imbroglio after another. embroil V.
imbibe
drink in. The dry soil imbibed the rain quickly
imbecility
weakness of mind. I am amazed at the imbecility of the readers of these trshy magazines
imbalance
lack of balance or symmmetry; disporportion. To correct racial imbalance in the schools, school boards have bused black hildren into white neighborhoods and white children into black ones.
illusory
deceptive; not real. Unfortunately, the costs of running the lemonade stand were so highg that TOm;s profits proved illusory
illusory
deceptive; not real. Unfortunately, the cots of running the lemonade stand were so hih that TOm's profits proved illusory.
illusive
deceiving. This is only a mirage; let us not be fooled by its illusive effect
illusion
misleading vision. It is easy to create an optical illusion in which lines of equal length appear differen
illuminate
brighten; clear up or make understandable; enlighten. Just as a lamp can illuminate a dark room, a perceptive comment can illuminate a knotty problem.
illimitable
infinite. Human beings, having explored the far corners of the earth, are now reaching out into illimitable space
illicit
illegal. The defense attorney claimed that the police had entrapped his client; that is, they had elicited the illicit action of which they now accused him
ignominy
deep disgrace; shame or dishonor. To los the PIng-pong match to a trained chimpanzee! how could Rollo endure the ignominy of his defeat? ignominious adj
ignoble
unworthy; not noble. A true knight, Sir Galahad never stooped to perform an ignoble deed
ignite
kindle; light. When Desi crooned, 'Baby, light my fire' literal minded Lucy looked around for some paper to ignite
igneous
produced by fire; volcanic.Lava, pumice, and other igneous rocks are found ing reat abundance around Mount Versuvius near Naples
idyllic
charmingly carefree; simple. Far from the city, she led an idyllic existence in her rural retreat
idolatry
worship of idols; excessive admiration. Such idolatry of signers of country music is typical of the excessive enthusiasm of youth.
idiosyncrasy
individual trait, usually odd in nature; eccentricity. One of Richard Nixon's little idosyncrasies was his likeing for ketchup on cottage cheese. One of Hannibal LEcter's little idiosyncrasies was his liking for human flesh. idiosyncratic, adj
idiom
expression whose meaning as a whole differes from the meanings of tis individual words; distinctive style. The phrase 'to lose one's marbles' is an idiom; if I saw that JOe has lost his marbles, I'm not asking you to find them for him, I'm telling you idiomatically that he's crazy
ideology
system of ideas characteristic of a group or culture. For peopel who had grown up believeing in the communist ideology, it was hard to adjust to capitalism
iconoclastic
attacking cherished traditions. Deeply iconoclastic, Jean Gene delibearately set out to schock converitonal theategores with his radical plays. Da Vinci code was iconoclastic. iconoclasm N.
ichthyology
study of fish. Jacques Cousteau's programs abotu sea life have advanced the cause of icthyology
hypothetical
based on assumptions or hypothese; supposed. Suppose you are accepted by Harvard, Stnfrod and Yale. Which graduate school will you choose to attend? Remember, this is only a hypotehtcal situation
hypocritical
pretending to be virtuous; deceving. Because he believed Eddie to be interested only in his own advancement, Greg resented Eddie's hypocritical protestations of friendship. Hypocrisy N.
hyperbole
exaggeration; overstatement. As far as I'm concerned, Apple's claims about the new computer are pure hy[eperbole; no machine is that good. hyperbolic ad
hydrophobia
fear of water; rabies. A dog that bites a human being must be observed for symptoms of hydrophobia
hybrid
mongrel; mixed breed. Mendel's formula explains the appearance of hybrids and pure species in breeding
husbandry
save money, frugality; thrift; agriculture. He accumulated his small fortune by diligence and husbandry
husband
use sparingly; conserve; save. Marathon runners must husband their energy so that they can keep going for the entire distance
hurtle
crash; rush. The runaway train hurtled toard disaster.
humus
substance formed by decaying vegetable matter. In order to improve his garden, he spread humus over his lawn and flower beds.
hummock
small hill. The ascent of the hummock is not difficult and the view from the hilltop is ample reward for the effort
humility
humbleness of spirit. He spoke with a humility and lack of pride that impressed his listeners
humid
damp. She could not stand the humid climate and moved to a drier area.
humdrum
dull; monotonous. After her ears of adventure, she could not settle down to a humdrum existence
humane
marked by kindness or consideration. It is ironic that the Humane Society sometimes must show its compassion toward mistreated animals by killing them to end their misery
hue and cry
outcry. When her purse was snatched, she raised such a hue and cry that the thief was captured.
hue
color; aspect. THe aviary contained birds of every possible hue
hubris
arrogance; excesive self-coneit. Filled with hubris, Lear refused to heed his friends' warnings
hubbub
confused uproar. The marketplace was a scene of hubbub and excitement; in all the noise, we could not distinguish particular voices
hover
hang about; wait nearby. The police helicopter hovered above the accident
hovel
shack; small, wretched house. She wondered how poor people could stand living in such a hovel
hostility
unfriendliness; hatred. A child who has been the sole object of his parents' affection often feels hostility toward a new baby in the family, resenting the newcomer who has taken his place
horticultural
pertaining to cultivation of gardens. When he bought his house, he began to look for flowers and decorative shrubs, and began to read books dealing with horticultural matters
hortatory
encouraging; exhortive. The crowd listened to his hortatory statements with every-growing exciement; finanlly they rushed from the hall to carry out is suggestions
horde
crowd. Just before Christmas the stores are filled with hordes of shoppers
hoodwink
deceive; delude. Having been hoodwinked once by the fast-talkign salesman, he was extremely cautious when he went to purchase a used car
hone
sharpen. To make shaving easier, he hoened his razor withg reat care
homogeneous
of the same kind
homily
sermon; serious warning. His speeches were always homilies, advising his listeners to repent and reform
homespun
domestic; made at home. Homespun wit, like homespun cloth, was often coarse and plain
homeostasis
tendency of a system to maintain relative stability. A breakdown of the body's immune system severly undermines the body's ability to maintain homeostasis
homage
honor; tribute. In her speech she tried to pay homage to a great man
holster
pistol case. Even when he was not in uniform, hec arried a holster and pistol udner his arm
holocaust
destruction by fire. Citizens of San Francisco remember the destruction of the city was caused not by th earthquake but by the holocaust that followed
hoax
trick; practical joke. Embarrassed by the hoax, she reddened and left the room