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171 Cards in this Set

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Asch
-Studied conformity and the length of lines
-social psych
Bem
-Self-perception theory, an alternative to cog dissonance.
-social psych
K&M Clark
-doll preference
--social psych
Aronson & Linder
-gain loss principle= an evaluation that changes will have more of an effect than an eval that remains constant
-social psych
Darley & Lante
-two factors lead to not helping:
1. social influence
2. Diffusion of responsibility
--social psych
Eagly
-gender differences in conformity were not due to gender but to differing social roles
-social psych
Festinger
-cog disonance theory, social comparison theory
-social psych
Hall
-interpersonal distance
-social psych
Heider
-balance theory explains why attitudes change
-attribution theory establishes dispositional and situational attributions
-social psych
Hovland
-attitude change
--social psych
Eagly
-gender differences in conformity were not due to gender but to differing social roles
-social psych
Festinger
-cog disonance theory, social comparison theory
-social psych
Hall
-interpersonal distance
-social psych
Heider
-balance theory explains why attitudes change
-attribution theory establishes dispositional and situational attributions
-social psych
Hovland
-attitude change
--social psych
Janis
-groupthink
-social psych
Lerner
-just world
--social psych
Lewin
-3 categories of leadership styles: autocratic, democratic, laissez faire
--social psych
McGuire
-psychological innoculation helps resist persuasion
-social psych
Milgram
-obediance studies w/shock
-stimulus overload (city vs. country)
Newcomb
political norms
-social psych
Petty and Cacioppo
-elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (central vs peripheral)
--social psych
Schachter
-relationship betw anxiety and need for afiliation
--social psych
Sherif
-used autokinetic effect to study conformity
-used Robers cave to dem that superordinate goals incr intergroup cooperation
--social psych
Zajonc
-mere exposure effect
-social facilitation effect - presence of others causes dominant response
-social psych
Zimbardo
-performed prison simulation and used deindividuation to explain results
-social psych
Ainsworth
-used strange situation to study attachment
-developmental
Baumrid
-3 distinct parenting styles:
authoritarian, authoritative, permissive
-developmental
Bowlby
-phases of attachment (studied kids in orphanages)
-coined term separation anxiety
--developmental
Chomsky
-linguist who said kids learn language using an LAD
--developmental
Erikson
-his eight stages of psychosocial dev cover whole lifespan
-developmental
Freud
-psychosocial dev that emphasized Oedipal conflict (which is resolved by id w/ same sex parent in what is known as the phallic stage).
-developmental
Gesell
-development primarily due to maturation
-developmental
Gilligan
-males and females have diff orientations towards morality, criticized Kohlberg
-developmental
Hall
-founder of dev psych
Harlow
-used monkeys to study the role of contact comfort in bond formation
-developmental
Kohlberg
-studied moral dev using moral dilemas
Locke
-said infants had no predetermined tendencies aka "tabula rasa"
Lorenz
-imprinting in birds
Piaget
-4 stages cog dev
1. sensorimotor- circ rxn, obj permenance dev
2. preoperational-have centration (fixate on one aspect of phenom) and egocentrism, do not have conservation
3. concrete operational- can conserve but can't think abstractly
4. formal operational
Rousseau
said dev could happen w/out help from society
-developmental
Terman
study on gifted kids
-developmental
Tyron
maze running abilities in rats
-developmental
Vygotsky
-studied cognitive dev, zone of proximal dev
--developmental
Tichener
-STRUCTURALISM=breaking consciousness into its elements
James, Dewey
-FUNCTIONALISM= stream of consciousness, studies how mind functions to help people adapt to enviro
Watson, Skinner
-BEHAVIORISM= objective study of behavior
Wertheimer, Kohler, Kofka
-GESTALT= whole is something other than the sum of its parts (so didn't like structuralism or functionalism)
Chomsky
-COGNITIVE= study of thinking, processing reasoning
Freud, Jung, Adler
PSYCHOANALYSIS= behavior is a result of unconscious conflicts, repression, and defense mechansims
Maslow, Rogers
HUMANISM= people are wholes, humans have free will, we should study healthy people not just mentally ill
Adler
inferiority complex
Allport
- trait theorist who came up with idea of FUNCTIONAL AUTONOMY
- distinguished between idiographic and nomethic approaches to personality, preferred the idio.
Bandura
-social learning theory w/ Bobo doll
Bem
-androgeny
-male/female are two separate dimensions
Cattel
trait theorist who used factor analysis to study personality
Bandura
vicarious reinforcement
Dollard & Miller
-studied psychoanalysis from behaviorist viewpt
-approach/avoidance conflicts
Eysenck
-trait theorist who id 2 ways personalities are diff:
1. introversion-extroversion
2. stability-neuroticism
-criticized effectiveness of therapy
Anna Freud
-did ego psych, also applied freud's ideas to child psych and dev
Horney
-emphasized culture and society over instinct
-thought neuroticism could be expressed as moving towards, against, or away from
Jung
-personal unconscious, collective unconscious (archetypes)
Jung came up with the idea of introversion/extroverion and eysneck tested it.
Kelly
-individual as scientist
Kernberg, Klein
-object relations theorists
look for symbolic representations of a child's personality
Lewin
phenomological personality theorist that developed field theory. Involved the notion that personality is dynamic and ever changing.
Mahler, Kernberg, Klein
obj relations theorists
Maslow
phenomological hiearchy of needs, self actualization
phenomological
-empasize internal processes rather than overt behavior
-aka humanists
McClelland
need for Achievement
Winnicot, Mahler, kernberg, and klein
obj relations theorists
mischel
critical of trait theories of personality
rogers
phenomological personality theorist
-client centered, person centered, or non-directive therapy
-uncondit pos regard
Rotter
locus of control
Sheldon
related somatotype to body type
Selligman
learned helplessness theory of depression
Witkin
studied field dependence and field independence using the rod and frame test
Beck
-used CBT for depression
Bleuler
-came up with term "schiz"
Dix
advocated asylum reform
Kraepelin
dev system for classifying mental disorders, the dsm 4 ultimately evolved from this
Pinel
reformed french asylums
Rosenhan
studied effect of being labeled mentally ill by putting sane people mental hospitals
Selingman
learned helplessness theory of depression
Szasz
wrote "Myth of mental illness
Broca
id area of brain involved in PRODUCING spoken language
Wernicke
id area of brain involved in UNDERSTANDING spoken language
Cannon
-studied ans and fight or flight rxns, as well as homeostasis
-proposed the Canon-Bard theory of emotions, which stated that awareness of emotions reflects our physiological arousal and aour cognitive experience of emotion
Kandel
demonstrated that simple learning behavior is assoc w/ changes in neurotransmission (used aplysia)
James & Lange
-Proposed James-Lange theory of emotion, which stated that people become aware of their emotions after noting their physiological response to an event
Kluver and Bucy
studied loss of normal fear and rage rxns in monkeys resulting from damage to temporal lobes, also studied amygdala's role in emotions
Luria
studied how brain damage leads to impairment in sensory, motor, and lang functions
Milner
studied anterograde amnesia in HM, who had had damage to his hippocampus
Olds & Milner
-found pleasure center of the brain
Penfield
used electodes and electrical stim to map the brain
Schatner and Singer
-argued that unspecified physiological arousal will be labeled as different emotions depending upon mental response to environmental stimulation
Sherrington
came up with idea of the synapse
Sperry and Gazzaniga
investigated functional differences between left and rt cerebral hemispheres using split brain studies
Schatner-Singer theory of emotion
when physiological arousal occurs without any obvious cause, we will search the environment for something to explain the arousal and thus give it emotional meaning
ie, eating spoiled food and feeling lightheaded. The lightheadedness could be attributed to being in love.
James- Lange theory of emotion
we become aware of our emotions only after we notice our physiological rxns to some external event
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
subjective experience of emotion must involve specific neural circuits in the brain (ie, emotion is based on how our body reacts and our neural circuits)
Bekesy
traveling wave theory of pitch perception
Berkeley
-depth cues help us percieve depth
Broadbent
filter theory of attenuation
Fechner
relationship between intensity of stimulus and intensity of sensation
Gibson & Walk
developed visual cliff, which is used to study depth perception
Gibson
depth cues (like texture gradients) that help us perceive depth
Helmholtz
developed young-helmholtz trichromatic theory of color vision. Helmholtz also came up with the place-resonance theory of pitch perception
Hering
opponent process theory of color vision
Hubel & Wiesel
studying feature detection in visual cortex led them to discover simple, complex, and hypercomplex cells
Kohler
developed theory of isomorphism=1 to 1 correspondence betw obj in perceptual field and pattern of stimulation in the brain
Melzack & Wall
gate theory of pain
Stevens
developed Stevens law as an alternative to Fechner's law
Swets
definted ROC curves in signal detection theory
Wever and Bray
proposed volley theory of pitch perception in response to criticism of the frequency theory of pitch perception
Yerkes and Dodson
developed Yerkes-Dodson law which states that performance is best at intermediate levels of arousal
Bandura
-studied observational learning
Breland &Breland
-studied instinctual drift=instinctual ways of behaving are able to override behaviors learned through operant conditioning
Darwin
-theory of evolution, natural selection
Garcia
-studied taste-aversion learning and proposed that some species are biologically prepared to learn conncections between certain stimuli
Kohler
studied insight in problem solving
Lorenz
studied unlearned, instinctual behaviors in the natural enviro
Pavlov
Discovered classical conditioning
Premack
-a more-preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-prefered activity
Rescorla
-contiguity could not fully explain classical conditioning; proposed contingency theory of classical conditioning
Skinner
-developed operant conditioning
Thorndike
-used the puzzle box to study problem solving in cats
-law of effect=reponses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to recur in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to reccur in that situation.
Tinbergen
-introduced experimental methods in field situation
-did experiment on aggression in male stickle backs
Tolman
-showed that behavior isn't a matter of stimulus response reinforcement learning, it is COGNITIVE MAP
von Frisch
-communication in honey bees
Watson
-performed experiment on little Albert that suggested that the acquisition of phobias was due to classical conditioning
Wilson
developed sociobiology
Wolpe
systematic desensitization
Bartlett
-investigated role of schemata in memory, concluded that memory is largely a reconstructive process
Cattell
-divided intelligence into fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence and looked at how they change throughout the lifespan
Chomsky
-distinguished between the surface structure and the deep structure of a sentence, studied transformational rules that could be used to transform one sentence into another
Collins & Loftus
devised the spreading activation model of semantic memory = semanitc memory is organized into a map of interconnected concepts; the key is the distance between the concepts
Craik and Lockhart
-developed the levels of processing theory of memory as an alternative to the stage theory of memory
Ebbinghaus
-studied memory using nonsense syllables and the method of savings
Gardner
-proposed a theory of multiple intelligences that divide intelligence into seven different types
Guiliford
-devised divergent thinking to measure creativity
Kahneman and Tversy
investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability heuristic and the representiveness heuristic
Loftus
-studied eyewitness memory
Luchins
used water-jar prob to study the effect of mental sets on prob solving
Macoby and Jacklin
-gender differences in verbal ability exist
McClelland and Rummelhart
suggested that the brain processes information using parallel distributed processing (PDP)
Miller
-capacity of short term memory is seven plus or minus two items
Paivio
proposed dual code hypothesis
Smith, Shoben, and Rips
devised semantic feature comparison model of semantic memory=semantic memory contains feature lists of concepts; the key is the amount of overlap in the feature lists of the concepts
Spearman
suggested that individual differences in intelligence were largely due to differences in the amount of a general factor called g
Sperling
-studied the capacity of sensory memory using the partial report method
Sternberg
triarchic theory that divides intelligence into 3 types: componential(performance on tests), experiential (creativity), and contextual(business and street smarts)
Thurstone
used factor analysis to study primary mental abilities that were more specific than g but more general than s
Whorf
hypothesized that language determines how reality is percieved
Binet and Simon
developed the Binet-Simon intelligence test; introduced the concept of mental age
Holland
developed RAISEC of occupational themes
Jensen
suggested that there were genetically based racial differences in IQ
Morgan and Murray
developed the projective test TAT, which is used to measure personality
Rorschach
developed the Rorschach inkblot test, a projective test used to measure personality
Rotter
developed the sentance completion test, a projective test used to measure personality
Stern
developed concept of ratio IQ
Strong and Campbell
developed Strong-Campbell interest inventory used to asses diff lines of work
Terman
revised the Binet -simon intelligence test, the revision became known as the Stanford-Binet IQ test
Weschsler
developed intelligence tests for use at diff ages, like WPPSI, WISC, and WAIS. These yield a verbal IQ, a performance IQ, and a full scale IQ.
mean
sum of observations/number of observations
median
the number that divides the data in half
mode
the number with the highest frequency
range
highest score-lower score
strd dev
sq root of variance
variance
strd dev * strd dev
z score
your score minus the mean/strd dev
Allport
-trait theorist: cardinal, central, secondary
-functional autonomy = a given activity or form of behavior may become an end or goal in itself, regardless of the original reason for existance