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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how things are remembered and why things are forgotten
stages of memory
sensory, short term, and long term
sensory memory
lasts seconds. forms connection between perception and memory. e.g. when pen wiggled back and forth, the sensory information remains in your awareness briefly and because the pen moved quickly, the information all runs together, creating the illusion of a ghost pen in all positions
iconic memory
sensory memory for vision
George Sperling
studied "iconic memory". Found that people could see more than they can remember.
partial report
in Sperling's experiments, subjects were able to write down the strings of letter of a particular line that had just been presented to them, but in the time it took them to do this, they had forgotten the other strings of letters
Ulric Neisser
coined term "icon" and found that an icon lasts for about one second. Also discovered "backward masking"
brief visual memory
backward masking
when subjects are exposed to a bright flash of light or a new pattern before the iconic image fades, the first image will be erased
echoic memory
sensory memory for auditory sensations
short-term memory (STM)
temporary; lasts for seconds or minutes
George Miller
found that STM has the capacity of about 7 items (+ or - two)
grouping items; can increase the capacity of STM
STM is thought to be largely auditory and items are coded phonologically
repeating or practicing. key to keeping items in the STM and to transferring items to the LTM.
primary (maintenance) rehearsal
involves repeating material in order to hold it in STM
secondary (elaborative) rehearsal
involves organizing and understanding material in order to transfer it to LTM
How other information or distractions cause one to forget items in STM. STM and LTM are susceptible to interference.
proactive interference
interference in which the disrupting information was learned before the new items were presented, such as a list of similar words. Problematic for recall and thus causes proactive inhibition
retroactive interference
interference in which the disrupting information was learned after the new items were presented. Problematic for recall and thus causes retroactive inhibition
long-term memory (LTM)
capable of permanent retention. Most items are learned semantically, for meaning.
measure of LTM retention that requires subjects to recognize things learned in the past. e.g. MC tests
measure of LTM retention that requires subjects to generate information on their own. "Cued recall" begins the task.
cued recall
e.g. fill-in-the-blank
free recall
remembering with no cue
measures how much information about a subject remains in LTM by assessing how long it takes to learn something the second time as opposed to the first time
encoding specificity principle
material is more likely to remembered if it is retrieved in the same context in which it was stored. LTM is subject to this effect.
episodic memory
consists of details, events, and discrete knowledge
semantic memory
constists of general knowledge of the world
procedural memory
knowing "how to" do something
declarative memory
knowing a fact
Herman Ebbinghaus
first to study memory systematically. Presented subjects with lists of nonsense syllables to study the STM. Proposed "forgetting curve"
forgetting curve
depicts a sharp drop in savings immediately after learning and then levels off, with a slight downward trend
Frederick Bartlett
found that memory is "reconstructive" rather than rote using the story "War of the Ghosts"
people are more likely to remember the ideas or semantics of a story rather than the details or grammar of a story
Allan Paivio
suggested the "Dual Code hypothesis"
Dual Code hypothesis
items will be better remembered if they are encoded both visually (with icons or imagery) and semantically (with understanding).
Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart
asserted that learning and recall depend on "depth of processing"
depth of processing
different levels of processing exist from the most superficial phonological (pronunciation) level to the deep semantic (meaning) level. The deeper an item is processed, the easier it is to learn and recall.
behaviorists and learning
explain memory through "paired-associate learning"
paired-associated learning
one item is learned with, and then cues the recall of, another
Elizabeth Loftus
found that memory of traumatic events is altered by the event itself and by the way that questions about the event are phrased. Important for law-psychology issues, such as witness questioning.
Karl Lashley
found that memories are stored diffusely in the brain
Donald Hebb
posited that memory involves changes of synapses and neural pathways, making a "memory tree". Brain studies of young chicks also show that their brains are altered by learning and memory
E.R. Kandel
based on his studies with the sea slug Aplysia, believed that memory involves changes in synapses and neural pathways
Brenda Milner
wrote about "HM" who was given a lesion of the hippocampus to treat severe epilepsy and could not add anything to his LTM
possibly related to LTM
serial learning
verbal learning and memory task in which a list is learned and recalled in order ("serial recall")
serial recall
list is recalled in order
primacy and recency effects
How the first and last few items of a list are easiest to remember. First items are remembered because they benefit from the most rehearsal/exposure; last items because there has been less time for decay. Serial learning is subject to these effects. LTM is NOT subject to these effects.
serial-position curve
depicts the primacy and recency savings effects as a U-shaped curve
serial-anticipation learning
a list is learned
paired-associate learning
use this type of learning to study foreign languages. e.g. remember the Spanish word before remembering the English meaning
free-recall learning
list of items is learned, and then must be recalled in any order with no cue
acoustic dissimilarity
factor that makes items on a list easier to learn and retrieve
semantic dissimilarity
factor that makes items on a list easier to learn and retrieve
(in length of the terms and in length of the list of items to be remembered). factor that makes items on a list easier to learn and retrieve
factor that makes items on a list easier to learn and retrieve
factor that makes items on a list easier to learn and retrieve
factor that makes items on a list easier to learn and retrieve
importance to the subject
factor that makes items on a list easier to learn and retrieve
decay theory
aka Trace theory. Theory of the origin of forgetting which posits that memories fade with time. Too simplistic because other activities are known to interfere with retrieval
interference theory
Theory of the origin of forgetting which suggests that competing information blocks retrieval.
memory cues that help learning and recall.
generation-recognition model
anything one might recall should easily be recognized. i.e. MC tests are easier than essay (recall) tests
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
being on the verge of retrieval but not successfully doing so
state-dependent memory
like state-dependent learning. Retrieval is more successful if it occurs in the same emotional or physical state in which encoding occurred. e.g. depressed individuals cannot easily recall happy memories and alcoholics often remember the details of their last drinking session only when under the influence of alcohol
brain's tendency to group together similar items in memory whether they are learned together or not. Most often, they are grouped into conceptual or semantic hierarchies
order of items on a list
recall task in which subjects can more quickly state the order of 2 items that are far apart on the list than 2 items that are close together. e.g. 7 and 593 easier than 133 and 136
incidental learning
measured through presenting subjects with items they are not supposed to try to memorize and then testing for learning
eidetic memory
photographic memory. More common in children and rural cultures
flashbulb memory
recollectiong that seem burned into the brain
instrument often used in cognitive or memory experiments. It presents visual material (words or images) to subjects for a fraction of a second
Zeigarnik effect
tendency to recall uncompleted tasks better than completed ones