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119 Cards in this Set

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Sumerians created:
the first urban civilization (a series of competing city states)
Summerians were the first people to:
create large cities, build monumental buildings, use bricks from sun-baked clay, first sophisticated writing system, use the plow, probably invented the wheel
Cuneiform:
writing system of wedge-shaped characters on clay tablets
Sumerian Religion, including nature of their gods and afterlife:
Type: Polytheistic
Gods were: cruel and unpredictable

Afterlife: Happy afterlife only for the gods

Random Stuff: Gods punished humans through natural disaster. There were no ethics or concept of sin.
Hammurabi’s code based on four principles:
A. Punishment depended on social rank of the violator

B. The offender was subject to the same injury he/she caused.

C. All people were not equal under the law.

D. There was an attempt to protect the defenseless and promote justice.
Theocracy:
a form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, the God's or deity's laws being interpreted by the ecclesiastical authorities. Mesopotamia was a Theocracy.
Egypt and Mesopotamia differences and one similarity:
Differences:
A. Mesopotamia was open to attack, Egypt had many natural boundaries to protect it.

B. The Tigris and the Euphrates (main rives of Mesopotamia) were unpredictable and flooded without warning. The Nile however was very predictable and flooding was more gentle.

Similarity:
A. Both nations depended heavily on rivers and river water.
Distinguish among Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom:
Old Kingdom: the most fertile and successful; known as the pyramid age.

Middle Kingdom: religion became more democratic.

New Kingdom: known as the age of empires, when the empire began to decline.
What allowed the construction of big pyramids:
The wealth of the pharaohs and the skill and willingness of the people.
Hieroglyphics:
The Egyptian system of writing - pictographs that represented ideas and phonetic sounds.
Egypt and Mesopotamia Contrasts:
Egypt:
A. Egypt had stability
B. Kings were considered gods
C. Had natural barriers
D. Unified nation
E. Believed that they were the best, had a sense of superiority. Nation was very nation-centric.

Mesopotamia:
A. Many violent changes (war, invasion)
B. Kings were men, not gods - who were challenged often by rebels.
C. New ideas were brought by trade and invasion.
D. Became cradle of Western Civilization
Phoenicians became the greatest:
Maritime traders and colonizers of the Ancient Near-East
Persian Empire, Cyrus’ Concept of Imperial Rule:
Cyrus knew subjects were more advanced, so he learned from them. He thought government was like an umbrella, sheltered different groups but let them keep customs and laws.
Satraps:
a supervisor and government official, one for each province in the Persian Empire. They would only interfere when subjects were disobedient.
Vision of Zarathustra:
His vision was that the world is divided between good and evil, and that humans have free will to choose between the two.
Zarathustra's influence on Jews and Christians:
Judaism and Christianity both have a last judgment, heaven and hell, and an all powerful god, all of which were ideas of Zarathustra.
Covenant:
the sacred contract between Jews and their god.
What distinguished the Jews:
they were one of the first Monotheistic religions, they linked a universal god with ethical standards, and believed in immortal salvation in the next life.
Greece was the single most important:
source of Western civilization.
Influence of geography on the Greeks:
The Greeks had very little fertile farmland, lots of harbors, and everyone was close to the sea or ocean. Mountains made traveling difficult, which caused the political fragmentation.
Who was included in, excluded from, Greek citizenship:
Adult, free, native-born males over 20 were included in citizenship. Everyone else was not. 80% of the entire population was excluded.
Differences between Athens and Sparta:
Athens: Athenians put a high value upon education, arts, and sciences.

Spartans: Put low value on arts and sciences, was militaristic and authoritarian.
Cleisthenes was the true founder of:
Athenian Democracy
How and why Greece was conquered:
While wars were being waged between the various Greek city states (polises), Philip of Macedonia came in and conquered.
Hippocrates:
Hippocrates was the founder of scientific medicine. He was the first great empiricist in natural science. Invented the Hippocratic Oath.
Empiricism:
Empiricists believed that people should only create theories after careful observation of the measurable.
Socrates:
Socrates was the first philosopher to focus on ethical questions. He invented the Socratic Method, and eventually committed suicide. Some quotes of his were:
“Know thyself.”
“Virtue is greater than riches.”
“The unexamined life is not worth living.”
Plato:
Plato was a student of Socrates. He thought up the metaphor of the cave: that most people see only shadows, that only a select few can see more.
The Republic:
The Republic was the first systematic work of political science. It said the purpose of the state was to satisfy the common good.
Aristotle:
Aristotle was a student of Plato and was considered by many to be a universal genius (math, medicine, philosophy). He was called “The Master.” He invented inductive and deductive reasoning.
Golden Mean:
the Golden Mean was a Greek philosophical concept that people should not do things excessively, that they should avoid extremes, and work toward balance.
Sophrosyne:
Hesiod’s idea of moderation. He said that self-control was the key to happiness.
Hubris:
arrogance, overconfidence which inevitably leads to disaster.
Greece gave us what 3 art forms:
Drama, Lyrical Poetry, and “Classical Architecture”
Thespis:
Thespis created Drama and a character called “the answerer”
Slavery (its nature according to the author):
not as bad you might think
Statues of Women (including contrast between Greek and Sparta):
Spartan Women were relatively free and somewhat equal to men. Athenian women were often stuck home, and they were excluded from politics and property-ownership.
Olympics (its nature):
An athletic competition between men from the different city-states. All war would stop. The Olympics were often very brutal, and winning was everything.
Alexander the Great:
the son of Philip of Macedon, Aristotle was his tutor.

His Conquests: Alexander conquered a vast empire from Persia to Egypt to part of India.

What happened after his death: His three generals ruled separate portions of the empire

Consequences of his conquests: His conquests spread Greek ideas, created a mixed Greco-Asian culture, opened India to the west for ideas and trade, and disrupted the balance of power in Northern Indea. This disruption led to the development of the Maurian dynasty ruled by Ashoka. He also brought Asian goods like silk back to Greece.
Cynicism:
Founded by Diogenes, cynics believed in anti-materialism, and a return to simplicity and poverty.
Epicureanism:
Founded by Epicurius, Epicureanism said that the good life could be obtained in pleasure (pleasure meaning the absence of pain). They sought inner peace by rejecting other’s values and going inward into their owns minds. This led to political indifference.
Stoicism:
Founded by Zeno, stoics believed in the brotherhood of man. They believe that people must participate in public life to aid humanity. They also believe that natural laws governed all human beings, and that we must accept our roles in life’s drama. Stoicism had the largest following of any of the groups.
Advances of Archimedes:
Archimedes invented pi, calculus, and worked with pulleys and levers.
Euclid:
he was an Egyptian-Greek who wrote a treatise on geometry that is still relevant today.
Patricians:
the upper, ruling class that made up only 10% of the entire Roman population. They were the class allowed in the Senate.
Plebians:
the commoners, who made up 90% of the total Roman population, their body of government was the general assembly.
Pyrrhic victory:
A win, but at a terrible cost.
Punic Wars:
the Punic Wars were three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. Rome won all three wars, destroyed Carthage, and this marked the first imperial expansion of the Roman Empire.
Hannibal:
Carthaginian general who beat Roman armies in Italy, considered by some to be the greatest military mind of all time.
Scipio:
Roman general who beat Hannibal by forcing him to retreat to Carthage.
Latifundia:
they were vast, rural estates owned by wealthy land owners. The estates were worked by slave labor from over-seas conquests.
Julius Caesar:
Claims to power: was incredibly popular with the lower class Romans, Caesar conquered much of Gaul and came back, with plenty of wealth, as a hero.

Reforms: Caesar introduced a new calendar, decreased the debts of the people, increased spending on public works, ordered that 1/3 of all labor on the vast estates had to be free/paid labor.

Role in Republic: he took away power from the senate and gave it to himself, ending the Republic.
Octavian (including Governmental reforms):
he was the successor to Caesar who started the Roman Empire. He retained the outward for of Republic, but turned Rome into a constitutional monarchy. He gave food rations to the poor and expanded public works programs. He made several unsuccessful moral reforms and cut the army in half.
Pax Romana:
two centuries of peace, prosperity, and Roman greatness that started during the reign of Octavian.
Roman strengths:
law, invention of practical architecture, engineering, and sanitation
Achievements in Law (including innocent until...):
proven guilty
Rome’s greatest achievement:
peace and prosperity over a vast area for a long time period
Roman character leaned toward:
pragmatic, the here and now
Reasons for the Collapse of the Roman Empire:
the government was taken over by military generals who constantly fought amongst themselves, there was massive agricultural decline, and large city decline.
Barracks Emperors:
commanders who, with backing from a legion or two, fought for control of the government.
Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine (and their impact):
they divided the empire in half, furthering the dominance of the East. They lowered inflation, issued the first price ceilings on consumer goods, attempted to restore faith in the value of Roman coinage, increased the tax burden, and Constantine moved the government to the East. The West was no longer the dominant part of the empire.
Two developments spurring Christianity’s spread:
1. Saul of Tarsus converted to Christianity.

2. The Jews rebelled against the Romans, leading to the diaspora.
Four reasons Christianity was appealing (plus Jesus box):
1. Everyone was eligible

2. Christianity offered a message of hope and optimism

3. There was mutuality between the members.

4. Christianity had an appeal to idealism.

5. Better life available in the afterlife.

6. Christians believe in tolerance, justice, and humility.
Edict of Milan:
announced the official toleration of Christianity.
Theodosius’ decree:
this made Christianity the official religion.
Petrine Succession:
says that Bishops of Rome are direct successors to Peter.
Spartacus (What was authentic or not):
What was authentic:
A. There was in fact a Gladiator school in Capua headed by Lentulus Batiatus.

B. Crassus did lead soldiers against Spartacus.

C. Cilician pirates did make a deal with Spartacus, and then double-crossed him.

D. Maneuvers of the Roman legion were accurate.

What was not:
A. Caesar and Graccus did not participate in the revolt.

B. Survivors of the battle were crucified.
Olmecs:
located in Southern Mexico, they were known for their huge basalt carved heads. They were the only group to not have human sacrifice.
Maya:
were the most advanced pre-Columbian Amerindians. They were located in Southern Mexico and Guatemala, Their greatest accomplishment was extremely accurate astronomy based on refined math. They had human sacrifice.
Aztec location:
Valley of Mexico.
Tenochtitlan:
was the capital city of the Aztec empire; was also the religious center.
Aztec rulers were:
militaristic aristocrats.
Purpose and Scale of human sacrifice:
Religious Purpose: human blood was let to satisfy the gods.

Political Purpose: to terrorize the citizens.
Aztec and Maya similar to:
The Romans and Greeks, because the Aztecs borrowed much of their technology from the Mayans. And because the Aztecs were militaristic and practical, while the Maya were artistic and innovative.
Incas:
empire consisted of 8-10 million people in an area six times the size of Texas
Incas' militaristic empire rested on:
a dramatic increase in food supply due to agricultural improvements.
Divide and Rule:
Incas deported captured people, and imported their own.
Inca Weakness:
the main weakness of the Inca was the divisions and civil wars.
Anasazi:
located in the four corners region, they built great Pueblos, and were most effected by climate change.
Iroquois:
located in the Northeast woodland, the Iroquois lived in communal long houses and had a sophisticated form of government.
Mandan:
located near the Upper Missouri River, built large earth lodges and hunted buffalo.
Hollywood stereotype vs. reality of Native Americans:
not all Indians are plains-dwelling nomads.
Size of Africa:
the African continent is three-times the size of the continental United States.
Chief Characteristics of history:
variety (terrain, people, cultures)
Five Geographic/Climate Zones:
1. Mediterranean
2. Desert
3. Savannah
4. Sahel
5. Rainforest
Obstacles to agriculture and people:
65% of the land in Africa is inhospitable to human existence. In addition, there are many deserts and rainforests. Deserts that lack water for people, herds, and crops. Rainforests that have too much rain that leeches nutrients from the soil.
Tiv of Nigeria:
had no central government, but the societal government was at the village level.
Kush:
located near the bend in the Nile river, at the “S” curve, they were a partner and rival of Egypt whose main source of strength was trade, especially in gold and slaves.
Ghana:
located in West Africa, in the Sudan, they established a monopoly on the gold trade.
Nature of African slavery:
less harsh than European slavery. Slavery was often temporary, many slaves were house-servants, many of whom had considerable influence.
Mansa Musa:
early Africa’s most well-known ruler. Expanded his kingdom greatly.
Songhai:
the mightiest Sudanic empire.
Swahili city-states:
located on the East African coast, their strength was based on trade and manufacturing. They were a product of intermarriage between African Bantus and foreign Muslims.
Great Zimbabwe:
located in Southern Africa, their strength came from gold mines.
Why Europeans rationalized slavery:
Africans did it, so it wasn’t so wrong, it made them money, they used biblical quotes to justify it.
Tsetse fly and mosquito:
stopped many European explorers from venturing far into Africa.
Dhows:
African sailing vessels.
Monsoon winds:
Africans rode the dhows across to Arabia with help from the Monsoon winds.
Who conspired to deny the Africans:
Europeans, Berbers, and Arabs.
Great Zimbabwe (two sources of power):
Gold and trade.
Muhammad (his revelations and how Muslims view the world):
he received God’s word through the archangel Gabriel. Muslims view him as God’s last and most enlightened prophet. He is not worshiped as a god.
Five Pillars of Islam:
1. There is one true god, Allah, and Muhammad is His prophet.

2. Pray Five Times Daily

3. Fasting and observance of dietary prohibitions are demanded of all who can.

4. Giving money to the poor is commanded.

5. If possible, Muslims must make a Hajj to Mecca.
How Islam changed the status of women:
Muhammad said no female infanticide, women can make own marriage decision, keep their dowries, manage and inherit property.
Two Reasons for Islam’s success:
devotion of followers to spread the faith and their willingness to die; along with the exhaustion and devastation among its foes.
Qur’an on:
Jihad: resist those that attack you but do not initiate war; live in peace if non-believers wish peace.

Charity: distribute your wealth to the needy, don’t just talk about charity.

Women: a virtuous woman is obedient to her husband and careful when he is absent.

Christians and Jews: they have many things in common with Islam. Islam says Jesus was not the son of god.
Differences between Sunni and Shiites:
Shiites believe that the caliph must be a blood relative of Muhammad, but Sunni believe he must be best qualified.
Added factor in Islam’s success:
its openness to all creeds and colors.
Sharia:
sacred law of Islamic societies based on Qur’an and Sunna.
Sufis:
a branch of Islam who believed in a personal, mystic connection to Allah. Spread Islam to parts of Asia and Africa traditional Islam could not reach because they were tolerant of customs.
Ibn-Sina:
a Muslim physician, scientist, and author, who wrote the cannon of medicine.
Abbasid Dynasty greater in size than:
Roman Empire
Muslim views on wealth and obligations:
nothing wrong with getting rich, but you still have a duty to share with the poor.
Marriage and Women (why women’s status declined, nature of slavery, and female rights):
men were superior to women. The veiling and seclusion of women was in fact inherited from India. Slave women had more freedom than freeborn ones, but only as a sign of their inferior position. Most households had at least one slave. Slavery was common but not usually harsh. Slaves were often freed. Women of reproductive age and children where restricted to the private areas of the house where they were protected, called the Purdah.
Three ways in which geography influenced Russia’s history:
1. There was a vast expanse of land, but relatively few people: landed interests dominated Russian history.

2. Limited sea access led to limited merchant class and inward looking population.

3. Waterways tended to flow north to south, so Russians were not connected to Western Europe.
Four ways in which Russia’s past influenced recent history:
1. Collective Roots: vast hostile territory made settlers hunt, fish, trap, and live in groups making Russians more open to Soviet collectivism.

2. Tartar Yoke: Mongols ruled Russia for two centuries, isolating Russia from the West, including Western political and artistic idea, subjecting them to “Oriental Despotism.”

3. Security: lack of natural defensive barriers led to frequent attacks, so Russia was forced to keep a large military.

4. Historical Pride: Russia has existed for over a thousand years, so there is intense national loyalty.
Slav’s relative strength:
compared to the wealth and sophistication of the Byzantines, the Slavs’ economic and social lives were primitive, and their political and military structures were weak.
Role of outsiders in 1990's conflict:
the outside rulers imposed their traits and ideas upon the group it dominated, creating a diverse set of religions and groups.
Balfour Declaration:
stated that England supported “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people,” but “nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine.”
McMahon Pledge:
said that in return for Arab support against the Turks, the British would support the creation of an Arab homeland in the region between Egypt and Iraq.