Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Present Active Participle
2ndpp - re+ -ns, -ntis

Perfect Passive Participle (PPP)
4thpp - um + us, a, um

Future Active Participle
4thpp - um + urus, a, um

Future Passive Participle
4thpp - um + ndus, nda, ndum

participles are what type of word
How is the Present Active participle declined?
Like the 3rd conjugation, but is i-stem in the plural (amantum -> amantium)
How do particlples have to agree?
In gender, number, and case
Present Active Infinitive
Present Passive Infinitive
1st, 2nd and 4th = 2ndpp - e + i
3rd and 3rd io = 2ndpp - ere + i
Perfect Active Infinitive
3rdpp - i + isse
Perfect Passive Infinitive
4thpp - um + us + esse
Future Active Infinitive
4thpp - us + urus + esse
How can an Ablative Absolute be translated?
when, since, although, after
What makes an Ablative Absolute?
a noun or a pronoun plus a participle in the Ablative case
Ablative Absolute with Perfect Passive Participle
oppido capto, with the town having been captured
What is the difference in translation betweeen Oppido capto, Caesar vicit and Oppido capto, Caesar vincit?
If the main verb is present then the Ablative Absolute can be translated as anything before the present. If the main verb is imperfect then it can be translated as Perfect or Pluperfect. If the main verb is perfect it can only be translated as pluperfect. So:

When the town had been captured, Caesar overcame.

When the town was captured, Caesar overcame.
What is the most important thing to remember in respect to timing and Ablative Absolutes?
Participles never express exact time, because TIME IS RELATIVE
Ablative Absolute with the Present Active Participle
with _____ ____ing
omnibus clamantibus
with everyone shouting

when/since/after everyone is/was/had been shouting
Time Relation of Ablative Absolutes
PPP = Participle happens BEFORE (PAST) main verb

Present Active Participle = participle happens at the same time (PRESENT) as main verb

Noun + Noun or Noun + Adjective (no participle) = same time
What is the difference in translation between
Hostibus venientibus, terrentur.
Hostibus venientibus, terrebantur.
and Hostibus venientibus, territi sunt?
Since the enemies are coming, they are scared.
Since the enemies were coming, they were scared.
When the enemies had come they had been scared.
Ablative Absolute with Two Nouns
Caesare duce
When caesar is the leader
When does the perfect active participle occur?
deponent verbs
what's the first word to use with an Ablative Absolute
What are the steps for identifying/making indirect statements?
1. Caput Verb
2. "THAT"
3. accusative subject
4. verb in the infinitive
What types of verbs are accompanied by an Indirect Statement?
saying, thinking, knowing, percieving
What is important about the tense (time) of the infinitive?
Present Infinitive = SAME time as main verb
Perfect Infinitive = BEFORE main verb
Future Infinitive = AFTER main verb
What is the sequence of tenses chart?
Look at packet.
Which two types of clauses use ony the first column of the sequence of tenses chart?
Purpose and Result Clauses
What is the rule of thumb phrase for the Present Subjunctive?
frEd EAts A chIA chIA
1st 2nd 3rd 3io 4th
How do you conjugate sum in the present subjunctive?
sim simus
sis sitis
sit sint
Imperfect Subjunctive
2ndpp + endings

eg portarem (active), portarer (passive)
Perfect Subjunctive
3rdpp-re+erim, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erint

(future perfect except I's stay)
Perfect Passive Subjunctive
4thpp + sim sis sit simus sitis sint (present subjunctive of sum)
Pluperfect Subjunctive
3rdpp + isse + endings
Pluperfect Passive Subjunctive
4thpp + essem esses esset essemus essetis essent (imperfect subjunctive of sum)
Hortatory Subjunctive
Only form of subjunctive as main verb, most are in subordinate clauses.

negative = NE

expresses a wish, usually in 2nd person

hint: UTINAM
Purpose (UT)
in order to

only uses first column of sequence of tenses, so if Main Verb is Present+, Subjunctive is Present. If Main Verb is Imperfect-, then subjunctive is in the Imperfect
Purpose (Relative)
same as UT except a relative pronoun is used instead of UT. In other words...

Relative Pronoun + Present/Imperfect Subjunctive = IN ORDER TO
...SO/SUCH with the result THAT
UT + SO word
only first column of SOT chart used (only Present and Imperfect Subjunctive)

SO word + ut/ut non + subjunctive
SO word + rel. pronoun/rel. pronoun + non + subjunctive

(relative pronoun can act as UT)
What words are used to translate Cum Clauses?
when (indicative)
since (subjunctive)
although (ONLY with TAMEN)
Cum Temporal
cum = when
establishes time when main verb took place
Cum Caesar in Galliam venit...
When Caesar came into Gaul...
Cum primum
when first, as soon as
perfect indicative (translates as had)
Cum primum in urbem pervenit...
As soon as he had arrived in the city
Temporal (Postquam)
Indicative Perfect, translates pluperfect
Cum Circumstantial
cum = when
establishes circumstances under which the action of the main verb takes place

if happened in PAST, use SUBJUNCTIVE
if happened in PRESENT+, use INDICATIVE
Cum Causal
verb in clause is in subjunctive following sequence of tenses

Cum tu non addesses, pecuniam Marco dedi.

Since you were not there, I gave the money to Marco.

dedi = main verb = perfect = secondary sequence
subjunctive = same time = imperfect
Cum Concessive
tamen in main clause
When does the subject go before the cum in the Cum clause?
When the subject of the main verb and the Cum Clause are the same.
When is cum translated as when?
When BOTH verbs are in the indicative
What are the steps of an Indirect Question?
1. Main verb (usually a caput verb)
2. Question word
3. Subjunctive
How are Indirecct Questions translated?
Rogat quid faciamus. - He asks what we are doing.
Rogat quid fecerimus. - He asks what we have done.
Rogavit quid faceremus. - He asked what we were doing.
Rogavit quid fecissemus. - He asked what we had done.
Conditional Statements
IF_____THEN_______ = Si _____ [then] ____

negative = nisi
only uses primary sequence indicative verbs (present, future, and fut. perf, with no subjunctives)

Si eris bona, laeta eris.
If you are good, you will be happy.
present subjunctive in both verbs

Si Caesar veniat, laeti simus.
If Caesar should come we would be happy.
Present Contrary to Fact
imperfect subjunctive in both verbs

Si essem tu erim...
If I were you
Perfect (Past) Contrary to Fact
pluperfect subjunctive in both verbs

Si non interfectus esset, vidisset...
If he had not been killed, he would have seen...
How are gerunds translated?
-ing NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH Present Active Participle

participle = adjective
gerund = noun
How are gerunds made?
Nom: 2ndpp amare
Gen: 2ndpp - re + ndi amandi
Dat: 2ndpp - re + ndo amando
Acc: 2ndpp - re + ndum amandum
Abl: 2ndpp - re + ndo amando
Gerunds of Purpose
ad + gerund = gerund is accusative
gerund + causa = genitive*
gerund + gratia = genitive *

*translated as 'for the sake of'
How are gerundives made?
2ndpp-re + ndus, a, um
Gerundive of Necessity
Gerundive + "to be" = MUST

1. noun/pronoun in nominative
2. form of sum
3. gerundive agreeing with noun in nominative
4. 'do-er' in the dative

Carthago delenda est Romanis
The Romans must destroy Carthage.

Carthago = nominative, f
delenda = nominative, f
est = agrees with Carthago
Romanis = dative, do-er
What is the difference in translation between the following:

Carthago delenda est Romanis.
Carthago delenda fuit Romanis.
Carthago delenda erit Romanis.
The Romans must destroy Carthage.
The Romans had to destroy Carthage.
The Romans will have to destroy Carthage.