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89 Cards in this Set

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the core of the predicate consists of either?
a verb/a adjective/noun followed by a form of the copula da.
optionally objects or other adjectival and/or adverbial modifiers may be present.
prenominal form
the verb/adj form which immediately precedes a noun and modifies it
agent
one who completes an action or event. the agent is not always in the subject position
auxiliary adjective
a dependent adjective that is preceded by or attached to a verb or another adjective
auxiliary verb
used in conjunction with a preceding verb or adjective
active sentence
describes an action from the agents point of view
compound particle
consist of more than one word but functions like a single particle
coordinate conjunction
conjunction that combines two sentences without subordinating one to the other
direct object of a verb
direct recipient of an action by the verb. it can be animate(direct experiencer of some action)
or inanimate(something created,worked on,exchanged)
embedded sentence
embedded sentences are marked by a subordinate conjunction such as kara,keredomo,node,noni,to(if),quote marker to,nominalizer,head noun of a relative clause
imperative form
a conjugated verb form that indicates a command
indefinite pronoun
pronoun that does not refer to something specifically
intransitive verb
verb which does not require a direct object.the action or state is related only to the subject. they typically indicate movement,spontaneous change,human emotion, birth and death
(i) adjectives
1.end with shi-i(mostly express human emotion)
2.non shi-i endings(objective descriptions)
(na) adjectives
some can be used as real nouns.
all na adjectives behave as nouns when they are used before the copula
nominalizer
a particle that makes a sentence
into a noun phrase or clause.
there are two(no and koto)
passive sentence
sentence which describes an action by someone from the viewpoint of someone else who is effected by that action.
potential form
verb form that expresses compentence in the sense of "can do something"
stative verb
verb which represents a state of something or someone at some point in time
subordinate clause
a clause which is embedded into a main clause with a subordinate conjunction. typical subordinate conjunctions are(ba,kara,node,keredo,noni)
the informal form of the verb/adj is usually used
transitive verb
a verb that requires a direct object
volitional sentence
a sentence in which a person expresses his will. the main verb in such sentences are in the volitional form
wh-question
question that asks for info about who,what,where,which,
when,why,how
wh-words
question that asks for info about who,what,where,which,
when,why,how
they are not always found in sentence-initial positions they are frequently found after a topic noun phrase
yes-no question
question that can be answered by
hai(yes) or ie(no)
modal auxiliary(modal)
Modal auxiliary-give additional information about the mood of the main verb that follows it
causative
is an expression of an agent causing or forcing a patient to perform an action (or to be in a certain condition).
causative passive
a
coordinate clause
A coordinate clause is a clause belonging to a series of two or more clauses which
are not syntactically dependent one on another,and
are joined by means of
a coordinating conjunction
conjecture
indicate a proposition which is presumed to be real, true, or genuine, mostly based on inconclusive grounds
punctual verb
a verb that represents a momentary action which either occurs once, or can be repeated continuously.
contrastive
contrast is a relationship between two discourse segments. Contrast is often overtly marked by contrastive markers like but or however
cleft sentence
A cleft sentence is a sentence formed by a main clause and a subordinate clause, which together express a meaning that could be expressed by a simple sentence. Clefts typically put a particular constituent into focus. This focusing is often accompanied by a special intonation
infix
An infix is an affix(pre or suf) inserted inside an existing word
phrase
phrase is a group of words that functions as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence
affixes
An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a base morpheme such as a root or to a stem, to form a word. Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed.
relative clause
A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun. For example, the noun phrase the man who wasn't there contains the noun man, which is modified by the relative clause who wasn't there
superlative
the superlative of an adjective or adverb is a form of adjective or adverb which indicates that something has some feature to a greater degree than anything it is being compared to in a given context
clause
a clause is a word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly
interjection
An interjection is a part of speech that usually has no grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker
idiom
An idiom is an expression (i.e., term or phrase) whose meaning cannot be deduced from the literal definitions and the arrangement of its parts, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only through common use. In linguistics, idioms are widely assumed to be figures of speech that contradict the principle of compositionality
classifier
A classifier, in linguistics, is a word or morpheme used in some languages to classify a noun according to its meaning
vocative case
The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc.) being addressed and/or occasionally the determiners of that noun. A vocative expression is an expression of direct address, wherein the identity of the party being spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence
complex sentence
A complex sentence is a sentence which includes at least one main clause, and
at least one subordinate clause
matrix sentence
A matrix sentence is a sentence in which a clause has been embedded as a constituent
simple sentence
A simple sentence is a sentence containing one main clause and no subordinate clauses
constituents
A constituent is one of two or more grammatical units that enter syntactically or morphologically into a construction at any level
immediate constituent
An immediate constituent is any one of the largest grammatical units that constitute a construction. Immediate constituents are often further reducible
ultimate constituent
An ultimate constituent is one of the grammatically irreducible units that constitutes a construction
construction
A construction is an ordered arrangement of grammatical units forming a larger unit
tag question
Tag questions (or: question tags) are a grammatical structure in which a declarative statement or an imperative is turned into a question by adding an interrogative fragment (the "tag").
imperative
The imperative mood expresses direct commands, requests, and prohibitions
apposition
An apposition is a construction consisting of two or more adjacent units that have identical referents
referent
A referent is the concrete object or concept that is designated by a word or expression. A referent is an object, action, state, relationship, or attribute in the referential realm
referential realm
The referential realm is anything, real or imagined, that a person may talk about
morpheme
A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language
common noun
A common noun is a noun that signifies a nonspecific member of a group
collective noun
A collective noun is a noun that refers to a group of entities that may be considered either as individuals or as one larger entity
abstract noun
An abstract noun is a noun that denotes something viewed as a nonmaterial referent
mass noun
A mass noun is a noun whose referents are not thought of as separate entities
appositive clause
An appositive clause is a subordinate clause that has the same kind of function with a noun as other types of appositives. It names or labels or specifies the noun
generic noun
A noun that does not specify either masculine or feminine gender
noun phrase
a noun phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase whose head is a noun or a pronoun, optionally accompanied by a set of modifiers:
reciprocal
A reciprocal is a linguistic structure that marks a particular kind of relationship between two noun phrases. In a reciprocal construction, each of the participants occupies both the role of agent and patient with respect to each other
indirect object
An indirect object precedes the direct object and tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done and who is receiving the direct object. There must be a direct object to have an indirect object. Indirect objects are usually found with verbs of giving or communicating like give, bring, tell, show, take, or offer. An indirect object is always a noun or pronoun which is not part of a prepositional phrase
plosive
A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract
Fricatives
Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Affricate
Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as [t] or [d]) but release as a fricative (such as [s] or [z] or occasionally into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel
adverbial clause
An adverbial clause is a clause that functions as an adverb. In other words, it contains subject (explicit or implied) and predicate, and it modifies a verb
adverbial phrase
An adverbial phrase is a linguistic term for a phrase with an adverb as head
Disjunctive conjunction
grammatically two words or clauses, expressing at the same time an opposition or separation inherent in the notions or thoughts; as, either, or, neither, nor, but, although,except, lest, etc
types of noun phrases
subject
object of a verb
object of a preposition
subject complement
object complement

Since some verbals in particular, the gerund and the infinitive can act as nouns, these also can form the nucleus of a noun phrase
Subject Complement
In addition to the transitive verb and the intransitive verb, there is a third kind of verb called a linking verb. The word (or phrase) which follows a linking verb is called not an object, but a subject complement.
Object Complement
An object complement is similar to a subject complement, except that (obviously) it modifies an object rather than a subject.
direct object/indirect object
A verb may be followed by an object that completes the verb's meaning. Two kinds of objects follow verbs: direct objects and indirect objects. To determine if a verb has a direct object, isolate the verb and make it into a question by placing "whom?" or "what?" after it. The answer, if there is one, is the direct object:
verb phrase
A verb phrase consists of a verb, its direct and/or indirect objects, and any adverb, adverb phrases, or adverb clauses which happen to modify it. The predicate of a clause or sentence is always a verb phrase
verbal
A verbal is a noun or adjective formed from a verb
types of verbals
the participle (which acts as an adjective), the gerund (which acts as a noun), and the infinitive (which also acts as a noun)
participle
A participle is an adjective formed from a verb. To make a present participle, you add "-ing" to the verb, sometimes doubling the final consonant
gerund
A gerund is a noun formed from a verb. To make a gerund, you add "-ing" to the verb, just as with a present participle. The fundamental difference is that a gerund is a noun, while a participle is an adjective
linking verb
A linking verb connects a subject to a subject complement which identifies or describes the subject,
verb phrase
A verb phrase consists of a verb, its direct and/or indirect objects, and any adverb, adverb phrases, or adverb clauses which happen to modify it. The predicate of a clause or sentence is always a verb phrase
adjective phrase
An adjective phrase is any phrase which modifies a noun or pronoun. You often construct adjective phrases using participles or prepositions together with their objects
adverb phrase
A prepositional phrase can also be an adverb phrase, functioning as an adverb
diffrence between a phrase and a clause
A phrase is a group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate -- a group of grammatically-linked words with a subject and predicate is called a clause.
preposition
A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition
prepositional phrase
A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb
grammatical persons
first/second/third
I and we are said to be in the first person
you is in the second person
Any person, place, or thing other than the speaker and the addressed is referred to in the third person
reciprocal relationship
(to 2)
A reciprocal is a linguistic structure that marks a particular kind of relationship between two noun phrases. In a reciprocal construction, each of the participants occupies both the role of agent and patient with respect to each other.