Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how do you form a gerundive?
present stem +ndus, a, um or present participle -s +dus, a, um
milites ducendi is an example of what?
adjectival use of gerundive, ducendi agrees with milites
what verbs are always followed by a gerundive?
do, peto, curo (granting, asking, taking care of)
aedes faciendae sunt is an example of what?
gerundive as complement, agrees with aedes
Dixit laborem faciendam esse. Explain how each term is being used.
This is an example of indirect speech= acc (laborem) +inf (esse); faciendam is the complement of laborem
What case is agency normally expressed in when used with the gerundive?
What case is agency expressed in when used with a gerundive and an intransitive verb?
parcendum est feminae. Explain parcendum.
Parcendum is a gerundive in an impersonal expression because parco is an intransitive verb, i.e. does not take a direct object
how is "ad" translated with a gerundive?
"for the purpose of"
what is the meaning of a gerundive?
"to be _____"; passive in meaning; carries sense of obligation
what case follows "causa" and "gratia"?
What are the verbs of fearing?
Timeo, Vereor, Metuo, paveo (be frightened)
If there is a reflexive pronoun in the subordinate clause, to whom does it refer?
to the subject of the main clause
How are present tense indicative verbs translated with dum?
as imperfect tense
How is time coextensive indicated in a dum construction?
the use of two imperfect, pluperfect, future, future perfect or perfect indicative verbs in both clauses
What does "dum" mean when it is used with the indicative?
"when" or "at one point"
What does "dum" mean when it is used with the subjunctive?
"for/until such time as" or "provided that"
What do antequam and priusquam mean?
before; they follow the same rules as dum constructions
What is the meaning of "utpote qui (quae, quod)"?
"as is natural for one who"
how do you form a perfect active subjunctive?
take the perfect stem and add "erim, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erint"
how do you form a perfect passive subjunctive?
take the 4th pp and add "sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint"
What are the signals of indirect statements?
verbs of saying, thinking, reporting like: dico, loquor, enuntio, renuntio, nuntio, pronuntio, puto (consider), spero (hope), cogito (think), existimo (think), reor (think), meditor (meditate), delibero (consider), deputo (consider), constituo (decide), profiteor (declare), consulo (deliberate), intercedo (intervene), respondeo (answer), affirmo (confirm), queror (complain), confiteor (confess), profiteor (declare), posco (demand), nego (deny), expono (explain)
Name the subordinate uses of the perfect subjunctive.
1) in the subordinate clause of indirect speech, 2) used in result clauses (tam/ut+subj. or potest), 3) used in cum clauses where cum means "although" or since", 4) in a generic or causal sense with qui where the subordinate clause is used to characterize the person spoken of, 5) used after a verb of fearing: timeo, metuo, or vereor
Ne feceris. What use of the perfect subjunctive is this? How should it be translated?
This is an independent use of the perfect subjunctive in a negative iussive; it should be translated as "do not do this" in present time even though it is a perfect subjunctive
Besides the negative iussive, what is the other independent use of the perfect subjunctive?
It can be used to indicate potential where it means "could, would, should, or may"
What are the signals of indirect questions?
1) either a verb of asking, knowing/not knowing or mental activity or 2) an interrogative conjunction "quis?" (what?), "quid" (what?), "cur?" (why), "quo?" (to where?)
What are the verbs of asking, knowing/not knowing and mental activity?
queso (ask), inquiro (ask), interrogo (ask), rogo (ask), rogito (ask for eagerly), scio (know), nescio (I do not know), narro (tell) , considero (ponder)
Since there are no future subjunctives, what are used in their place? How are they formed? What must they agree with?
a future participle (formed by adding "urus" to the 4th pp) + sim, sis, sit or essem, esses; they must agree with the subject in person, number, gender and CASE
what are the signals for a conditional construction?
"si" and "nisi"
how are conditionals translated?
usually are constructed using the pluperfect subjunctive (isse) and are translated: "if x had happened, y would have happened"; if perfect subjunctives are used, they are usually translated as present tense
how is "quin" normally translated?
quin usually means "but that," but also can mean "without"
what type of construction does quin signal?
This is a negative construction after a verb of hindering or preventing which uses the subjunctive
fieri non potest quin is translated as:
it cannot come about but that
what are signals for a negative hindering or preventing construction:
1) must use either "quin" or "quominus", 2) must use a negative expression like "nil", "nonquam", "nuli" ,"nemo"
what signals a negative expression of doubt?
usually quin + "dubito" or "dubium" or the negative of "scio", "fieri" "potest"
how is are "quominus" and "ne" translated in positive clauses of hindering or preventing?
usually translated as "from"
what verbs are associated with "quin," "quominus," and "ne"?
prohibeo (prevent, hinder) and impedio (prevent, hinder, impede)
what is the form and meaning of petiverim?
1st p s; perfect active subjunctive; I may have asked for, sought
what is the form and meaning of petimus?
1st pp; present active indicative; we seek
what is the form and meaning of petivisti?
2nd s; perfect active indicative; you (have) sought
what is the form and meaning of petetis?
2nd pp; future active indicative; you will seek
what are the principal parts of peto?
peto, petere, petivi, petitum
what are the principal parts of vereor?
vereor, vereri, veritus sum
what is the form and meaning of veritus eram?
1st ps; pluperfect active indicative; I have been afraid
what is the form and meaning of vereatur?
3rd ps; present active subjunctive; he may be afraid
what is the form and meaning of veriti eritis?
2nd pp; future perfect active indicative; you will have been afraid
what are the principle parts of metuo?
metuo, metuere, metui