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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
most common causative organism of UTIs in young, healthy people
E. coli
GNR
facultative
examples of Enterobacteriaceae
Enterobacter
E. coli
Klebsiella
Proteus
Salmonella
Shigella
Yersinia
Enterobacteriaceae: morphology and metabolism
GNRs (straight)
facultative organisms
SIRS
systemic inflammatory response syndrome
presence of at least 2 of the following:
temp <36 or >38
HR >90 bpm
RR >20 bpm or PaCO2 <32 mm Hg
WBCs <4000/mL or >12000/mL or >10% bands
bacteremia
isolation of bacteria from bld
may or may not indicate infection
sepsis
evidence of SIRS + known or suspected infection
septicemia
evidence of SIRS + infection in the bld
severe sepsis
sepsis + organ dysfunction
septic shock
severe sepsis + hypotension (systolic BP <90 despite fluid resuscitation) and perfusion abnormalities
MODS
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
altered organ function in an acutely ill patient
homeostasis can't be maintained w/o intervention
typical infections of Enterobacteriaceae
UTIs
diarrhea
pneumonia
bacteremia & sepsis
wound infection
P. aeruginosa: morphology and metabolism
GNR (straight rod)
obligate aerobe
P. aeruginosa: growth and nutrients
ubiquitous, esp. in water (grows in plastic hosptial tubing)
simple growth requirements
P. aeruginosa: biochemical reactions
oxidase +
cytochrome oxidase +
non-lactose fermenter
Enterobacteriaceae: habitat
free-living in nature
indigenous to human flora
Enterobacteriaceae: biochemical reactions
catalase +
oxidase -
lactose fermentation variable
important pathogen in immunocompromised patients
P. aeruginosa
P. aeruginosa: types of infections
hospitalized / immunocompromised patients (opportunistic pathogen)
pneumonia
CF patients; burn patients
UTIs (if structural abnormality present)
eye infections
wound infections
exotoxin A
virulence factor of P. aeruginosa:
disrupts host protein synthesis
exoenzymes S and T
virulence factors of P. aeruginosa:
host tissue destruction
antigenic phase variation
virulence factor of Enterobacteriaceae
expression of H and K antigens is genetically controlled and can be turned on and off
sequestration of growth factors
virulence factor of Enterobacteriaceae
e.g. sequester Fe by hemolysis
mechanism of endotoxin action
binds to receptors on B cells, macrophages
produces IL-1, TNF-alpha, IL-6, prostaglandins
immune response and inflammation
growth of B cells
effects of endotoxin
alternative complement pathway activated
coagulation pathways activated
vasodilation and capillary leakage cause shock
pyocyanin
blue-green pigment that is a virulence factor in P. aeruginosa
catalase + oxidase -
cytochrome oxidase -
lactose fermentation variable
Enterobacteriaceae
isolation of bacteria from bld
(may or may not indicate infection)
bacteremia
SIRS + infection (known or suspected)
sepsis
SIRS + infection in bld
septicemia
sepsis + organ dysfunction
severe sepsis
severe sepsis + hypotension + perfusion abnormalities
septic shock
oxidase + cytochrome oxidase +
non-lactose fermenter
P. aeruginosa
distinguish P. aeruginosa from Enterobacteriaceae on basis of catalase reaction
Enterobacteriaceae catalase +
P. aeruginosa catalase ?
distinguish P. aeruginosa from Enterobacteriaceae on basis of oxidase (or cytochrome oxidase) reaction
Enterobacteriaceae oxidase - (cytochrome oxidase -)
P. aeruginosa oxidase +
(cytochrome oxidase +)
distinguish P. aeruginosa from Enterobacteriaceae on basis of lactose fermentation
Enterobacteriaceae variable lactose fermenters
P. aeruginosa non-lactose fermenter