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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the hardest known mineral? (found in pipes)
diamond
What is any hollow space in the earth's crust that has formed maturally and is large enough for a person to enter.
cave
What are small deposits of igneous and metamorphic crystals?
gemstones
What is any trace of a plant or animal left in a rock?
fossil
Name for the rarest, most durable and beautiful gems
precious stones
What is a rock containing a metal together with impurities?
an ore
Name the metal that is a good conductor of electricity; two of its alloys are brass and bronze.
copper
the most commonly used practical metal; used for thousands of years to make tools
iron
area surrounding a magnet in which the force of the magnet affects other objects
magnetic field
The ends of a magnet are called _____.
poles
What kind of rock covers over 75% of the earth's surface?
sedimentary
magnetic field produced by the earth is called
magnetosphere
The hardest material that composes the earth's crust is ____.
rock
What kind of rock has been changed by extreme heat or pressure into a new kind of rock?
metamorphic
Which kind of rock is formed from sand and mineral fragments that have been pressed together?
sedimentary
Which rock is formed when molten rock solidifies?
igneous
type of igneous rock formed at the earth's surface, cools rapidly, and has a fine-grained texture
extrusive
most common igneous rock and can be found everywhere on land
granite
type of igneous rock remains in a pocket bylow the surface, cools slowly, and has a coarse-grained texture
intrusive
Which sedimentary rock is formed by chemical sediments and is used for salting roads and flavoring food?
halite
sedimentary rock used to make glass
sandstone
sedimentaruy rock that is the only stone formed by living animals
reef limestone
metamorphic rock that begins as shale, is very hard, and has leaflike layers
slate
metamorphic rock that is perhaps one of the most beautiful and most widely used, and began as limestone
marble
What is designed to live either in or above a cave?
troglophile
The study of caves is _____.
speleology
What visits a cave regularly but must return to the surface for food?
trogloxene
What is formed by the dissolving of underground rocks by water?
solution cave
Excplain how a solution cave is formed. Be able to tell if this physical or chemical weathering and why?
See text p.
hard, shiny, black coal
anthracite
visits a cave regularly but must return to the surface for food
trogloxene
formed by the dissolving of underground rocks by water
solution cave
What consists of rounded pebbles in hardened clay or sand?
conglomerate rock
most common type of coal
bitumious
poorest quality of coal
lignite
thick, dark, flammable liquid
petroleum