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138 Cards in this Set
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 Back
additive inverse

A number that when added to a given number results in a sum of zero.
Example: (+3)+(3)=0 (3) is the additive inverse of 3 

opposites

Numbers that are the same distance from zero in opposite directions on the number line.


integers

The set of whole numbers and their additive inverses.
{...3,2,1,0,1,2,3...} 

rounding

To approximate the value of a number to a given decimal place.
Examples: 2.56 rounded to the nearest tenth is 2.6; 2.54 rounded to the nearest tenth is 2.5; 365 rounded to the nearest hundred is 400 

place value

The value given to a place a digit may occupy in a numeral.


benchmark

A point of reference from which measurements can be made.


ratio

A comparison of two numbers.
Example: the ratio of consonants to vowels in the alphabet is 21:5 

proportion

A statement that two ratios are equal.


fraction

A number representing some part of a whole. A quotient in the form a/b.


decimals

Decimals, like whole numbers, are based on the number ten. The digits and the position of each digit determine the value of a decimal. The decimal point separates the whole number part of the decimal from the part that is less than one.


percents

A number expressed in relation to 100, represented by the symbol %.
Example: 76 out of 100 students use computers 76 percent of students use computers 

least common multiple

The smallest nonzero whole number that is a multiple of two or more whole numbers.
Example: the least common multiple of 3,9, and 12 is 36 

multiple

The product of a given number and an integer.
Examples: 8 is a multiple of 4 3.6 is a multiple of 1.2 

factor

A number or expression that is multiplied by another to yield a product.
Example: 3 and 11 are factors of 33 

numerator

The top number in a fraction, In the fraction a/b, a is the numerator.


denominator

The bottom number in a fraction.


number line

A line showing numbers at regular intervals in which any real number can be indicated.


cross product

A method used to solve proportions and test whether ratios are equal:
a/b=c/d if ad=bc 

circle graph
(pie chart) 
A way of displaying statistical data by dividing a circle into proportionallysized "slices".


common denominator

A whole number that is the denominator for all members of a group of fractions.
Example: the fractions 5/8 and 7/8 have a common denominator of 8 

least common denominator

The least common multiple of the denominators of two or more whole numbers.
Example: 12 is the least common denominator of 1/3, 2/4, and 3/6 

improper fraction

A fraction in which the numerator is greater than the denominator.
Example: 21/4, 4/3,2/1 

mixed number

A number composed of a whole number and a fraction.
Example: 5 1/4 

simplify fraction

Taking a fraction to the simplest form; when the GCF of the numerator and denominator is 1.


products

The result obtained by multiplying two numbers or variables.


greatest common factor
(GCF) 
The greatest number that is a factor of two or more multiples.
Example: 30, 60, 75 the greatest common factor is 15 

sum

The result of adding two numbers or quantities.
Example: 6+4=10 10 is the sum of the two addends, 6 and 4 

difference

The result obtained when one number is subtracted from another.


product

The result obtained by multiplying two numbers or variables.


quotient

The result obtained from dividing one number or variable (the divisor) into another number or variable (the dividend).


inverse operations

Operations that undo each other.


multiplicative inverse

The number for any given number that will yield 1 when the two are multiplied, same as reciprocal.


exponent

A numeral that indicates how many times a number or expression is to be multiplied by itself.


base

(1)The side or face on which a threedimensional shape stands.
(2)The number of characters a number system contains. 

power

Represented by the exponent n, to which a number is raised by multiplying itself n times.


perfect square

A number that is the square of an integer.


square root

A number that when multiplied by itself produces a given number.
For example, 3 is the square root of 9. 

square

A rectangle with congruent sides.


cube

(n.) A solid figure with six square faces.


cube

(v.)To multiply a number by itself again.


cube root

The number that must be multiplied by itself and then by itself again to produce a given number.


rule

A statement that describes a relationship between numbers or objects.


prime number

A whole number greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and itself.


composite number

A number exactly divisible by at least one whole number other than itself and 1.


place value

The value given to a place a digit may occupy in a numeral.


order of operations

To find the answer to an equation, follow this 4 step process:
1)do all operations with parentheses first; 2)simplify all numbers with exponents; 3)multiply and divide in order from left to right; 4) add and subtract in order from left to right. 

pattern

A regular, repeating design or sequence of shapes or numbers.


degree

[1](algebraic) the exponent of a single variable in a simple algebraic term;
[2](algebraic) the sum of the exponents of all the variables in a more complex algebraic term; [3](algebraic) the highest degree of any term in an equation; [4](geometric) a unit of measurement of an angle or arc, represented by symbol 

vertex

The common point of two rays of an angle, two sides of a polygon, or three or more faces of a polyhedron.


acute angle

Any angle that measures less than 90°.


obtuse angle

Any angle that measures more than 90° but less than 180°.


right angle

An angle that measures 90°.


complementary angles

Two angles whose sum is 90°.


supplementary angles

Two angles whose sum is 180°.


metric system

A decimal system of weights and measurements based on the meter as its units of length, the kilogram as its unit of mass and the liter as its unit of capacity.


meter

The basic metric unit of length.


liter

A basic metric unit of capacity.


gram

A metric unit used to measure mass.


customary system

Units of measurement used in the United States to measure length in inches, feet, yards, and miles; capacity in cups, pints, quarts and gallons; weight in ounces, pounds, and tons; and temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.


height

The distance from the base to the top of the figure.


altitude

The perpendicular distance from the base of a shape to the vertex; altitude indicates the height of a shape.


pi

The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. It approximately equal to 3.14.


radius

A line segment from the center of a circle to any point on its circumference.


diameter

A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and divides it in half.


circle

A perfectly round shape with all points equidistant from a fixed point, or center.


polygon

A simple, closed plane figure, having three or more line segments as sides.


triangle

A polygon that has three sides.


quadrilateral

A polygon that has four sides.


pentagon

A polygon that has five sides.


hexagon

A polygon that has six sides.


heptagon

A polygon that has seven sides.


octagon

A polygon that has eight sides.


nonagon

A polygon that has nine sides.


decagon

A plane polygon with ten angles and ten sides.


parallel

Straight lines or planes that remain a constant distance from each other and never intersect.


perpendicular

Two lines or planes that intersect to form a right angle.


reflection
(flip) 
To "turn over" a shape.


translation
(slide) 
A transformation in which a geometric figure is slid to another position without rotation or reflection.


rotation
(turn) 
A transformation in which a figure is turned a certain number of degrees around a fixed point or line.


xaxis

The horizontal reference line in the coordinate graph.


yaxis

The vertical reference line in the coordinate graph.


quandrant

[1]One quarter of the circumference of a circle;
[2]On a coordinate graph, one of the four regions created by the intersection of the xaxis and the yaxis. 

area

The size of a surface, usually expressed in square units.


perimeter

The distance around the outside of a closed figure.


radius

A line segment from the center of a circle to any point on its circumference.


diameter

A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and divides it in half.


circle

A perfectly round shape with all points equidistant form a fixed point, or center.


vertex

The common point of two rays of an angle, two sudes if a polygon, or three or more faces of a polyhedron.


outcome

A possible result in a probablilty experiment.


probability

The study of likelihood or chance that describes the chances of an event occurring.


tree diagrams

A connected, branching graph used to diagram probablilties or factors.


theoretical probability

The ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of possible outcomes.


random sampling

A population sample chosen so that each member has the same probability of being selected.


like terms

Terms that include the same variables raised to the same powers; like terms can be combined.


rule

A statement that describes a relationship between numbers or objects.


multiplicative inverse

The number for any given number that will yield 1 when the two are multiplied; same as reciprocal.


additive inverse

A number that when added to a given number results in a sum of zero.


parentheses

The enclosing symbols (), which indicate that the terms within are a unit.


variable

A letter or other symbol that represents a number or set of numbers in an expression or an equation.


equivalent expressions

Expressions that always result in the same number, or have the same mathematical meaning for all replacement values of their variables.


equivalent ratios

Ratios that are equal.


protractor

Used to measure angles.


distributive property

This property states that multiplying a sum b a number is the same as multiplying each addend by that number and then adding the two products.


negation

Something considered the opposite of something positive.


equal

Of the same measure, quantity,amount, or number as another; identical in value.


factor tree

Used to find the prime factorization of a number.


divisibility rules

A whole number is divisible by:
2 if the ones digit is divisible by 2 3 if the sum of the digits is divisible is divisible by 3 5 if the ones digit is 0 or 5 10 if the ones digit is 0 

standard form

Numbers written without exponents.


meter

Basic unit of length in the metric system; width of a doorway; 1m approximate to 1.1 yard.


centimeter

2.5cm approximate to 1 inch;
half the width of a penny 

kilometer

6.2km approximate to 1 mile; 6 city blocks


inch

width of a quarter


foot

equal to 12 inches; length of a large adult foot


yard

equal to 3 feet; length from nose to fingertip


mile

equal to 1,760 yards; 10 city blocks


fluid ounce

2 tablespoons of water


cup

8 fluid ounces;
coffee cup 

pint

2 cups
small ice cream container 

quart

2 pints;
large measuring sup 

gallon

4 quarts;
large plastic jug of milk 

transversal

The line that intersects a pair of parallel lines.


favorable outcomes

The specific outcome the player is looking for is an event or favorable outcome.


sample space

Set of all possible outcomes.


biased sample

Group whose inclination is marked with strong prejudice.


term

When a plus sign or minus sign separates an algebraic expression into parts, each part is called a term.


multiplicative identity

The product of any number and 1 is the number.
Example: 7x1=7 1xn=n 

additive identity

The sum of any number and 0 is the number.
Examples: 5+0=5 a+0=a 

kilogram

1 kg is approximate to 2 lb;
six medium apples 

square units

Number of squares that would cover a surface.


preimage

An figure before it is transformed.


image

A figure in a coordinate plane that is produced from a transformation.


1st Quadrant

positive, positive
(+,+) 

2nd Quadrant

negative, positive
(,+) 

3rd Quadrant

negative, negative
(,) 

4th Quadrant

positive, negative
(+,) 

like denominators

Fractions having the denominator as the same number.


unlike denominators

Fractions that have different denominators.


Fundamental Counting Principle

Rule to determine possible outcomes when you multiply the number of possibilities in each group together.
