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138 Cards in this Set

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additive inverse
A number that when added to a given number results in a sum of zero.

Example:
(+3)+(-3)=0
(-3) is the additive inverse of 3
opposites
Numbers that are the same distance from zero in opposite directions on the number line.
integers
The set of whole numbers and their additive inverses.
{...-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3...}
rounding
To approximate the value of a number to a given decimal place.

Examples:
2.56 rounded to the nearest tenth is 2.6;
2.54 rounded to the nearest tenth is 2.5;
365 rounded to the nearest hundred is 400
place value
The value given to a place a digit may occupy in a numeral.
benchmark
A point of reference from which measurements can be made.
ratio
A comparison of two numbers.

Example:
the ratio of consonants to vowels in the alphabet is 21:5
proportion
A statement that two ratios are equal.
fraction
A number representing some part of a whole. A quotient in the form a/b.
decimals
Decimals, like whole numbers, are based on the number ten. The digits and the position of each digit determine the value of a decimal. The decimal point separates the whole number part of the decimal from the part that is less than one.
percents
A number expressed in relation to 100, represented by the symbol %.

Example:
76 out of 100 students use computers
76 percent of students use computers
least common multiple
The smallest nonzero whole number that is a multiple of two or more whole numbers.

Example:
the least common multiple of 3,9, and 12 is 36
multiple
The product of a given number and an integer.

Examples:
8 is a multiple of 4
3.6 is a multiple of 1.2
factor
A number or expression that is multiplied by another to yield a product.

Example:
3 and 11 are factors of 33
numerator
The top number in a fraction, In the fraction a/b, a is the numerator.
denominator
The bottom number in a fraction.
number line
A line showing numbers at regular intervals in which any real number can be indicated.
cross product
A method used to solve proportions and test whether ratios are equal:

a/b=c/d if ad=bc
circle graph
(pie chart)
A way of displaying statistical data by dividing a circle into proportionally-sized "slices".
common denominator
A whole number that is the denominator for all members of a group of fractions.

Example:
the fractions 5/8 and 7/8 have a common denominator of 8
least common denominator
The least common multiple of the denominators of two or more whole numbers.

Example:
12 is the least common denominator of 1/3, 2/4, and 3/6
improper fraction
A fraction in which the numerator is greater than the denominator.

Example:
21/4, 4/3,2/1
mixed number
A number composed of a whole number and a fraction.

Example:
5 1/4
simplify fraction
Taking a fraction to the simplest form; when the GCF of the numerator and denominator is 1.
products
The result obtained by multiplying two numbers or variables.
greatest common factor
(GCF)
The greatest number that is a factor of two or more multiples.

Example:
30, 60, 75
the greatest common factor is 15
sum
The result of adding two numbers or quantities.

Example:
6+4=10
10 is the sum of the two addends, 6 and 4
difference
The result obtained when one number is subtracted from another.
product
The result obtained by multiplying two numbers or variables.
quotient
The result obtained from dividing one number or variable (the divisor) into another number or variable (the dividend).
inverse operations
Operations that undo each other.
multiplicative inverse
The number for any given number that will yield 1 when the two are multiplied, same as reciprocal.
exponent
A numeral that indicates how many times a number or expression is to be multiplied by itself.
base
(1)The side or face on which a three-dimensional shape stands.
(2)The number of characters a number system contains.
power
Represented by the exponent n, to which a number is raised by multiplying itself n times.
perfect square
A number that is the square of an integer.
square root
A number that when multiplied by itself produces a given number.

For example, 3 is the square root of 9.
square
A rectangle with congruent sides.
cube
(n.) A solid figure with six square faces.
cube
(v.)To multiply a number by itself again.
cube root
The number that must be multiplied by itself and then by itself again to produce a given number.
rule
A statement that describes a relationship between numbers or objects.
prime number
A whole number greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and itself.
composite number
A number exactly divisible by at least one whole number other than itself and 1.
place value
The value given to a place a digit may occupy in a numeral.
order of operations
To find the answer to an equation, follow this 4 step process:
1)do all operations with parentheses first;
2)simplify all numbers with exponents;
3)multiply and divide in order from left to right;
4) add and subtract in order from left to right.
pattern
A regular, repeating design or sequence of shapes or numbers.
degree
[1](algebraic) the exponent of a single variable in a simple algebraic term;
[2](algebraic) the sum of the exponents of all the variables in a more complex algebraic term;
[3](algebraic) the highest degree of any term in an equation;
[4](geometric) a unit of measurement of an angle or arc, represented by symbol
vertex
The common point of two rays of an angle, two sides of a polygon, or three or more faces of a polyhedron.
acute angle
Any angle that measures less than 90°.
obtuse angle
Any angle that measures more than 90° but less than 180°.
right angle
An angle that measures 90°.
complementary angles
Two angles whose sum is 90°.
supplementary angles
Two angles whose sum is 180°.
metric system
A decimal system of weights and measurements based on the meter as its units of length, the kilogram as its unit of mass and the liter as its unit of capacity.
meter
The basic metric unit of length.
liter
A basic metric unit of capacity.
gram
A metric unit used to measure mass.
customary system
Units of measurement used in the United States to measure length in inches, feet, yards, and miles; capacity in cups, pints, quarts and gallons; weight in ounces, pounds, and tons; and temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.
height
The distance from the base to the top of the figure.
altitude
The perpendicular distance from the base of a shape to the vertex; altitude indicates the height of a shape.
pi
The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. It approximately equal to 3.14.
radius
A line segment from the center of a circle to any point on its circumference.
diameter
A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and divides it in half.
circle
A perfectly round shape with all points equidistant from a fixed point, or center.
polygon
A simple, closed plane figure, having three or more line segments as sides.
triangle
A polygon that has three sides.
quadrilateral
A polygon that has four sides.
pentagon
A polygon that has five sides.
hexagon
A polygon that has six sides.
heptagon
A polygon that has seven sides.
octagon
A polygon that has eight sides.
nonagon
A polygon that has nine sides.
decagon
A plane polygon with ten angles and ten sides.
parallel
Straight lines or planes that remain a constant distance from each other and never intersect.
perpendicular
Two lines or planes that intersect to form a right angle.
reflection
(flip)
To "turn over" a shape.
translation
(slide)
A transformation in which a geometric figure is slid to another position without rotation or reflection.
rotation
(turn)
A transformation in which a figure is turned a certain number of degrees around a fixed point or line.
x-axis
The horizontal reference line in the coordinate graph.
y-axis
The vertical reference line in the coordinate graph.
quandrant
[1]One quarter of the circumference of a circle;
[2]On a coordinate graph, one of the four regions created by the intersection of the x-axis and the y-axis.
area
The size of a surface, usually expressed in square units.
perimeter
The distance around the outside of a closed figure.
radius
A line segment from the center of a circle to any point on its circumference.
diameter
A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and divides it in half.
circle
A perfectly round shape with all points equidistant form a fixed point, or center.
vertex
The common point of two rays of an angle, two sudes if a polygon, or three or more faces of a polyhedron.
outcome
A possible result in a probablilty experiment.
probability
The study of likelihood or chance that describes the chances of an event occurring.
tree diagrams
A connected, branching graph used to diagram probablilties or factors.
theoretical probability
The ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of possible outcomes.
random sampling
A population sample chosen so that each member has the same probability of being selected.
like terms
Terms that include the same variables raised to the same powers; like terms can be combined.
rule
A statement that describes a relationship between numbers or objects.
multiplicative inverse
The number for any given number that will yield 1 when the two are multiplied; same as reciprocal.
additive inverse
A number that when added to a given number results in a sum of zero.
parentheses
The enclosing symbols (), which indicate that the terms within are a unit.
variable
A letter or other symbol that represents a number or set of numbers in an expression or an equation.
equivalent expressions
Expressions that always result in the same number, or have the same mathematical meaning for all replacement values of their variables.
equivalent ratios
Ratios that are equal.
protractor
Used to measure angles.
distributive property
This property states that multiplying a sum b a number is the same as multiplying each addend by that number and then adding the two products.
negation
Something considered the opposite of something positive.
equal
Of the same measure, quantity,amount, or number as another; identical in value.
factor tree
Used to find the prime factorization of a number.
divisibility rules
A whole number is divisible by:
2 if the ones digit is divisible by 2
3 if the sum of the digits is divisible is divisible by 3
5 if the ones digit is 0 or 5
10 if the ones digit is 0
standard form
Numbers written without exponents.
meter
Basic unit of length in the metric system; width of a doorway; 1m approximate to 1.1 yard.
centimeter
2.5cm approximate to 1 inch;
half the width of a penny
kilometer
6.2km approximate to 1 mile; 6 city blocks
inch
width of a quarter
foot
equal to 12 inches; length of a large adult foot
yard
equal to 3 feet; length from nose to fingertip
mile
equal to 1,760 yards; 10 city blocks
fluid ounce
2 tablespoons of water
cup
8 fluid ounces;
coffee cup
pint
2 cups
small ice cream container
quart
2 pints;
large measuring sup
gallon
4 quarts;
large plastic jug of milk
transversal
The line that intersects a pair of parallel lines.
favorable outcomes
The specific outcome the player is looking for is an event or favorable outcome.
sample space
Set of all possible outcomes.
biased sample
Group whose inclination is marked with strong prejudice.
term
When a plus sign or minus sign separates an algebraic expression into parts, each part is called a term.
multiplicative identity
The product of any number and 1 is the number.

Example:
7x1=7
1xn=n
additive identity
The sum of any number and 0 is the number.

Examples:
5+0=5
a+0=a
kilogram
1 kg is approximate to 2 lb;
six medium apples
square units
Number of squares that would cover a surface.
pre-image
An figure before it is transformed.
image
A figure in a coordinate plane that is produced from a transformation.
1st Quadrant
positive, positive
(+,+)
2nd Quadrant
negative, positive
(-,+)
3rd Quadrant
negative, negative
(-,-)
4th Quadrant
positive, negative
(+,-)
like denominators
Fractions having the denominator as the same number.
unlike denominators
Fractions that have different denominators.
Fundamental Counting Principle
Rule to determine possible outcomes when you multiply the number of possibilities in each group together.