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36 Cards in this Set

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Barroco
Portuguese for ‘rough pearl’. It is the origin of the term ‘Baroque’. It describes the ornate, decorative and grandiose art and music of the Baroque Era. However, the word was originally used as an insult, to describe art or music in bad taste
Le nuove musiche (The New Music, 1602)
a musical collection by Caccini, a member of the Florentine Camerata. Caccini and the Florentine Camerata invented three musical elements associated with the beginning of the Baroque period: opera, recitative(beginning of the sound of Music - singing speech) and monody(solo sing w/ a chord in the background). Le nuove musiche features solo songs written in the new monodic style (solo singer with simple instrumental accompaniment)
Major-minor tonality
a system of major and minor keys that feature a thrust toward the tonic. The use of major-minor tonality became firmly established during the Baroque period.
Equal temperament
a system of tuning keyboard instruments so that the octave is divided into 12 equal semitones. Developed during the Baroque era, the equal temperament system allowed musicians to play in any major/minor key without experiencing unpleasant sounds. It is the tuning system still in use today
Figured bass
a Baroque practice of writing numerals above or below a bass line to indicate the harmony to be supplied through improvisation by the basso continuo players
Basso continuo / thorough bass
Italian for ‘continuous bass’. A Baroque performance group with two performers: a bass instrument (usually cello or bassoon) and a chord instrument (usually harpsichord, lute or organ). It is used to accompany an instrumental or vocal melody
The affections
a philosophy practiced by Baroque musicians. They believed that music should communicate one clear emotion throughout the duration of a piece
Improvisation
improvisation was an important element in Baroque music. Figured bass require the basso continuo players to improvise the indicated harmony. Also, singers and players were expected to add their own ornamentation to the written melody. Two of the greatest Baroque improvisers were J.S. Bach and Handel. Improvisation became less important after the Baroque period
Ornamentation
melodic decorations such as trills, mordents and turns used to emphasize certain notes and to add flavour and emotion.. They were commonly improvised during the Baroque period
Terraced dynamics
a Baroque system of dynamics where a passage played at one dynamic level is contrasted at another level, creating an echo effect. Terraced dynamics became less important after the Baroque period as instruments capable of creating smooth crescendos and diminuendos were developed
Binary form
a two-part (A-B) form with each section normally repeated. It is a standard form for pieces in the Baroque period
Ternary form
a three-part (A-B-A) form where the final section is a repetition of the first section. It is a standard form for pieces in the Baroque period
Homophonic texture
a musical texture with a melody and accompanying harmony. Monody (one melody with instrumental accompaniment) is a form of homophonic texture. Its invention by the Florentine Camerata around the 1600 marks the beginning of the Baroque period. It was popular in later period of the Baroque Era
Polyphonic texture
a musical texture with two or more melodic lines. Polyphonic texture was developed during the Baroque period through genres such as the fugue.
Concerto (plus 6 terms)
instrumental genre in several movements for solo instrument or instrumental group and accompanying instrumental group/orchestra.. The word originates from the Latin word concertare ‘to vie with’.
Solo concerto
concerto for virtuoso solo instrument and accompanying instrumental group/orchestra (ripieno)
Concerto
Concerto grosso
concerto for instrumental group (concertino) and accompanying instrumental group/orchestra (ripieno)
Concerto
Ritornello form
Italian for ‘little return’. A Baroque form based on a short instrumental passage that returns again and again like a refrain
Concerto
Tutti / ripieno
Italian for ‘all’. The accompanying instrumental group/orchestra in a concerto.
Ripieno
– Italian for ‘full’. The accompanying instrumental group/orchestra in a concerto.
Concertino
the featured ensemble in the Baroque concerto grosso.
Oratorio (plus 5 terms)
large scale dramatic composition originating in the Baroque period with text usually based on religious subjects. Oratorio is performed by solo voices, ensembles, chorus and orchestra. It is similar to opera, but it has no costumes, scenery or action
Terms: French overture,Da capo aria, Recitative secco, Recitative accompagnato,Word painting
French overture
Baroque instrumental introduction to an opera, ballet, or suite, written in two sections. The first section is a slow opening featuring ponderous dotted rhythms, and the second section is a fast Allegro. It often ends with a brief return to the slow opening
Da capo aria
aria in ternary (A-B-A) form, often found in Baroque operas and oratorios. During the Baroque period, the singer was expected to add ornaments in the last A section
Recitative secco
Italian for ‘dry recitative’; recitative (a type of speech-like singing/declamation used in operas and oratorios) accompanied with occasional chords by the basso continuo (bass and chord instrument such as cello and harpsichord). Its free melody closely follows the natural inflection of the text
Recitative accompagnato
recitative (a type of speech-like singing/declamation used in operas and oratorios) with orchestral accompaniment
Word painting
musical pictorialization used as an expressive device to convey emotions, actions or objects in the text
Prelude and Fugue (plus 8 terms)
a Baroque polyphonic instrumental genre with a prelude (a short keyboard work in improvisatory style) followed by a fugue (an imitative, contrapuntal composition in which a single subject prevails throughout the piece by entering in one voice, then another)
Terms: Subject, Answer, Countersubject, Episode, Stretto, Counterpoint,Pedal point, Tierce de Picardie
Prelude and Fugue
Subject
the main theme of a fugue in the tonic key
Prelude and Fugue
Answer
the second statement of the main theme of a fugue, in the dominant key
Prelude and Fugue
Countersubject
a recurring counter-melody that accompany the subject or answer in a fugue
Prelude and Fugue
Episode
a transitional passage in a fugue, often sequential, found between statements of the subject or answer
Prelude and Fugue
Stretto
entries of subject or answer in a fugue that overlap in close succession. J.S. Bach often used strettos in his fugues to create a dramatic climax
Prelude and Fugue
Counterpoint
the art of combining two or more melodies in contrapuntal, polyphonic texture. Baroque fugal writing requires a high level of technique in counterpoint. One of the greatest master of Baroque counterpoint is J.S. Bach.
Prelude and Fugue
Pedal point
a sustained note, frequently in the bass, over which the harmonies change. J.S. Bach often wrote a tonic or dominant pedal in the final section of his fugues to re-enforce the key in a dramatic and climactic manner.
Prelude and Fugue
Tierce de Picardie
a type of ending in a minor key work in which the perfect cadence (V-I ending) finishes with the tonic major chord (I#3). It is a common ending in minor key Baroque pieces.
Prelude and Fugue