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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organic Chemistry
the study of compounds that are based on carbon.
Organic Compounds
compounds based on carbon

*usually contain carbon carbon and carbon hydrogen bonds
There are several million organic componds, but only about a quarter of a million inorganic compounds.

Why are there so many organic compounds?
1. the carbon can form up to four covalent bonds.
2. carbon atoms can for strong single double and triple bonds with other carbon atoms.

these unique bonding properties allow the formation of a variety of structures, including chains and rings of many shapes and sizes.
saturated organic compounds
molecules that contain only single-single carbon bonds
unsaturated organic compounds
molecules that contain double or triple carbon bonds.
Tetrahedral Molecular Shape
Carbon atom with four single bonds.

The shape results because the elctrons in the four bonds repel each other. In the tetrahedral position, the four bonded atoms and the bonding electrons are as far apart from each other as possible. (109.5 degeres)
Trigonal Planar Molecular Shape
carbon with one double bond and two single bonds
(120 degrees)
Linear Molecular Shape
1. carbond with two double bonds.
2. carbon with one triple bond and one single bond (180 degrees)
Bent Molecular Shape
2 single bonds
2 lone pairs

tetrahedral with only two bonds = Bent (104.5 degrees)
polar covalent bond
covalent bond between two atoms with different electronegativities
measure of how strongly an atom attracts electrons in a chemical bond
Every polar bond has a Bond Dipole.

What is a bond dipole?
a partial negative charge and a partial positive charge

eg. water (H2O)
* C-C or C-H bonds are considered non polar
Molecular Polarity
An overall imbalance of charge. The molecule has a region of partial positive charge and partial negative sharge.
*not all molecules with polar bonds are polar (eg. carbon dioxide has two polar bonds, but is a non polar molecule)
Predicting Molecular Polarity
Step 1:
no polar bonds = non polar molecule
polar bonds = Step 2

Step 2:
one polar bond = polar molecule
more than one polar bond = Step 3

Step 3:
bond dipoles do NOT counteract each other = polar molecule
bond dipoles that DO conteract each other = non-polar
simplest type of organic compound.
widely used as fuels
non polar compounds
classified as either aliphatic or aromatic
eg. gasoline, propane and natural gas
Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
contains carbon atoms that are bonded in one or more chains and rings. Contain single double and triple bonds. Aliphatic hydrocarbons include straight chain and cyclic alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
based on the aromatic Benzene group (C6H6)
*benzene actually has six identical bonds each somewhere between a double and a single bond.
A hydrocarbon that contains sinlge bonds only.
an Alkane in the shape of a ring.
a hydrocarbon that contains at least one double bond.
same formula as cycloalkanes: CnH2n
When an alkene reacts the reaction almost always occurs at the double bond. Why?
In a double bond, one pair of electrons forms a single bond and the other pair forms an additional, waker bond. The electrons in the additional, weaker bond react faster thatn the electrons in the single bond. Thus, carbon-carbon double bonds are more reactive that carbon-carbon single bonds.
*triple bonds are even more reactive than double bonds.
Functional Group
a eractive group of bonded atoms that appears in all the members of a chemical family.
They help determine the physical and chemical properties of compounds.
a hydrocarbon with at least one triple bond.
Naming Organic Componds
prefix + root + suffix
The Root (of the name of an organic compond)
Number of carbon atoms = Root
The Suffix (of the name of an organic compound)
alkane= -ane
alkene= -ene
alkyne= -yne
The Prefix (of the name of an organic compound)
indicates the name and the location of each branch and functional goup on the main chain. Number the branches so that they have the lowest possible position numbers.
Alkyl Group
obtained by removing one hydrogen atom from an alkane.
eg. -CH3 is the alkyl group that is derived frim methane CH4 and is called a methyl group.
ortho-12 and 2 (1,2)
meta- 12 and 4 (1,3)
para- 12 and 6 (1,4)
general formula
R + finctional group
where R = alkyl group
Why are functional groups a useful way to classify organic compounds?
1. Compounds with the same functional group often have similar physicial properties.
2. Compounds with the same functional group react chemically in very similar ways.
organic compound that contains the -OH functional group
primary, secondary, tertiary
Alkyl Halides (haloalkanes)
An alkane in which one or more hydrogen aoms have been replaced with halogen atoms, such as F, Cl, Br or I.
R-X Where X=halogen atom
Alkyl Halides are similar in structure, polarity, and reactivity to alchohols.
An organic compound that has two alkyl groups joined by an oxygen atom
Name: alkoxy group + parent alkane