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117 Cards in this Set

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A variation of a particular character
Trait
The study of heredity
Genetics
Who used the observation of pea plants to study inheritance
Gregor Mendel
When sperm from the pollen of one flower fertilzes a different plant it is called
Cross-fertilization
Offspring of 2 different true-breeding varieties are called
Hybrid
Mating of 2 organisms that differ in only one character
Monohybrid
Mating of 2 organisms that differ in two character
Dihybrid
Alternative form of a gene
Allele
Having identical alleles for a gene
Homozygous
Having different alleles for a gene
Heterozygous
An allele in a heterozygous individual that appears to be the only one affecting a trait
Dominant
An allele in a heterozygous individual that does not appear to to affect a trait
Recessive
Diagram showing the probablilties of the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
Punnett square
Observable traits
Phenotype
Genetic makeup of an organism; an organism's combination of alleles
Genotype
If a round yellow pea was crossed with a wrinkled green pea, what would the gametes be
F1 generation: Round yellow
(round and yellow are dominant)

F2 generation: 1 round yellow, 1 wrinkled yellow, 1 round green, 1 wrinkled green
A diagram that shows all possible oursomes of a genetic cross
Punnett Square
Generalization that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for inheritance patterns
Chromosome theory of inheritance
Specific location of a gene on a chromosome
Gene locus
Tendency for alleles of genes on the same chromosome to be inherited together
Gene linkage
Gene located on a sex chromosome
Sex-linked gene
Package of nucleic acid wrapped in a protein coat that must use a host cell's machinery to reproduce itself
Virus
Virus that infects bacteria; also called a "phage"
Bacteriophage
Molecule responsible for inheritance; nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
DNA
Building block (monomer)of nucleic acid polymers
Nucleotide
Double-ring nitrogenous base
Purine
Single-ring nitrogenous base
Pyrimidines
2 strands of nucleotides wound about each other - the structure of DNA
Double helix
Scientists who created the double helix model of DNA
Watson and Crick
Process of copying DNA molecule to form 2 new daughter strands
DNA replication
Nucleic aicd containing the sugar ribose
RNA
Process by which a DNA template is used to produce a single-stranded RNA molecule
Transcription
Process by which a sequence of nucleic acids in RNA is used to direct the production of a chain of specific amino acids
Translation
Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
Mutation
Physical or chemical agent that causes mutations
Mutagens
Complete set of an organisms; an organisms combination of alleles
Genome
Condition also called trisomy 21 - an abnormal number of chromosomes
Down Syndrome
When a pair of homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis
Nondisjunction
Family tree that records and traces the occurrence of a trait in a family
Pedigree
Examples of human disorders that are inherited as dominant traits
Dwarfism or achondroplasia
Extra fingers or toes
Huntingtons disease
Example of human sex-linked disorder
Red-green color blindness
2 classes of genes that direct the production of proteins that regulate cell growth and division - important in cancer genes
Growth factors

Tumor suppressor genes
Cancer-causing gene
Oncogenic
Use of organisms to perform practical tasks for humans
Biotechnology
Combination of genes from different sources into a single DNA molecule
Recombinant DNA technology
Small, circular DNA molecule found in bacteria that is separate from the bacterial chomosome
Plasmid
Examples fo genetically engineered plants or animals
New crops that are resistant to to pests
Sheep with better wool, pigs with leaner meat
Particular stretches of DNA that are variable among individuals
Genetic markers
Each individuals particular banding pattern on an electrophoresis gel, determined by restriction fragments of the persons DNA
DNA fingerprint
Certain groups of cells that remain undifferentiated and have the potential to develop into various types of cells
Stem cells
Inherited characteristic that improves an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Adaptation
All of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time
Evolution
Who studied geology, plants, and animals from different environments and noticed how they adapted
Charles Darwin
The process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring than other individuals
Natural selection
Preserved remains left by an organisms that lived in the past
Fossils
Chronological collection of life's remains in sedimentary rock layers
Fossil record
No longer existing as a living species on Earth
Extinct
Group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area at the same time
Population
All of the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population
Gene pool
Contribution that an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation compared to the contribution of other individuals
Fitness
Medicine that kills or slows the growth of bacteria
Antibiotics
The origin of a new species
Speciation
Study of the processes of multicellular organisms as they develop from fertilized eggs to fully formed
Embryology
Branch of biology that involves identification, naming, and classification of species
Taxonomy
What is the most widely used system of classification
Linnaeus
What are the 2 main characteristics of the Linnaeus system of classification
1. 2 part (bi-nomal) Latin name for each species

2. Hierarchy of species into groups
Name for the evolutionary tree that shows species on different branches of the tree
Phylogenetic tree
Classification system from Broadest to Narrow
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Tip to learn classification
K = Kids
P = Prefer
C = Candy (over)
F = Fresh
G = Green
S = Spinach
How do viruses reproduce
Lysogenic cycle - virus injects itself into the host and is copied when host reproduces
What is it called when the phage attaches to the host cell and injects its DNA
Lytic cycle
Examples of a RNA virus illness
Cold, flu, measles, mumps
AIDS, polio
Examples of a DNA virus illness
Hepatitis and herpes
HIV is an example of what kind of RNA virus
Retrovirus - reverse the usual DNA to RNA flow of genetic information
Dose of a disabled or destroyed pathogen used to stimulate a long-term immune defense against the pathogen
Vaccines
Eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, fungus. A diverse kingdom of organisms that do not fit into any other kingdom. Most are unicellular and free-living.
Protists
Animal-lioke protist; is a heterotroph. Do not have a cell wall. Live mostly in water.
Protozoans
Plant-like protist; makes its own food by photosynthesis
Algae
Diverse group of protozoans named for their use of hair-like projections called cilia to move and feed
Ciliates
Freshwater ciliate that feeds mainly on bacteria. Organism covered by thousands of cilia that function in locomotion and feeding
Paramecium
Group of unicellular photosynthetic protists with one or two flagella and no cell wall
Euglena
Most common inhabitant in pond water. Single cell protist and can live in both light and darkness
Euglena
How are protozoas categorized?
By how they move:
Flagella, pseudopodia, cilia
An example of large, multicellular marine algae
Seaweed
Are fungi more related to plants or human?
Humans
What are most fungi made of
Hyphae - tiny threads of cytoplasm surrounded by plasma membrane and covered by cell wall
How do fungi reproduce?
Release large numbers of microscopic spores
Two examples of fungi
Yeasts - make breads and ferment alcohol
Molds - penicillin
What are the 4 main characteristics of an animal
Eukaryotic
Lack cell walls
Multicellular
Heterotrophs that ingest food
Animals without backbones
Invertebrates (95% of all animals on earth)
Animals with backbones
Vertebrates
(Fish, dogs, humans etc)
Fossil records show that animal diversity increased mostly when?
About 500 million years ago
How did animal life begin?
During the Cambrian "Explosion" - first fossils seen with hard skeletons.
Member of a group of animals that have a notochord - a flexible rod that extends along the body to anus
(Notochord = spinal cord)
Chordate
Are vertebrates chordates?
Yes
Skeletal segments of the backbone that protects the nerve cord of the the spinal cord
Vertebrae
A group of vertebrates (frogs, toads) that live mostly in water, but also on land
Amphibian
An individual with two identical alleles for a particular character
Homozygous
If you want to know the genotype of a pea plant that has purple flowers, what experiment would you perform?
Testcross

Testcross breeds an individual of unknown genotype but dominant phenotype (purple) with a recessive
What is the predicted phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation of a dihybrid cross?
9 : 3 : 3 : 1
Principle of independent assortment
(Round yellow pea with wrinkled green pea)
AB blood type in humans is a result of
Codominance
How many alleles for a sex-linked (X-linked)gene does a male carry?
One
Heredity material is called
DNA
The "backbone" of nucleic acid polymers is composed of
Sugar-phosphate...sugar-phosphate
The complete set of genetic material in an organism is called its
Genome
Trisomy 21 is a condition usually caused by
Nondisjunction
What is the probability that each child born to two carriers of a recessive-disorder allele will have the disorder?
1/4
What do biologists use to cut a section of DNA from a chromosome?
Restriction enzymes
Why do scientists use gel electrophorsis
To compare DNA samples from different sources
What provides clues about the size and structure of once-living organisms?
Fossils
What is the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to produce better genetic traits?
Artifical selection
What are some examples of reproductive barriers between species?
Different breeding seasons.
Different mating behaviors.
Different habitats.
Divisions on the geologic time scale are marked by what intervals
Regular intervals of time
The number of species was drastically cut by what occurrance
Mass extinction
The fine threads that make up the bodies of most fungi are called
Hyphae
Animals called invertebrates all lack a
Backbone
What is an example of an invertebrate chordate?
Lancelet