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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Popular Sovereignty
the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power
Thomas Pain
author of the 1776 pamphlet 'Common Sense'
Articles of Confederation
the first constitution of the US (1777) creating an association of states with a weak central government
Shay's Rebellion
a grassroots uprising (1787) by armed Massachusetts farmers protesting foreclosures on farms
Delegates to the Constitutional Convention
American societies elite, replaced not revised the Articles of Confederation
a political system in which power is divided between the central and regional units
Virginia Plan
a proposal at the constitutional convention that congressional representation be based on population, thus favoring the large states
Great Compromise
the constitutional solution to congressional representation; equal votes in the Senate, votes by populationin the House
Three-fifths compromise
the formula for counting five slaves as three people for purposes of representation that reconciled northern and southern factions at the Constitutional Convention
supporters of the constitution, who favored a strong central government
advocates of states' rights who opposed the constitution
Federalist No. 10
James Madison tried to convince America that a large country was no more likely to succumb to the effects of special interests than a small one--the greatest danger to a republic came from factions (interest groups)
the process through which a proposal is formally approved and adopted by vote
Constitional Convention
A meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced a totally new constitution still in use today
a governmentwhich decisions are made through representatives of the people
The Federalist Papers
a series of essays written in support of the Constituion to build support for its ratification
groups of citizens united by some common passion or interest and opposed to the rights of other citizens or to the interests of the whole communitity
house of congress--100 members, 2 per state
two houses (Senate and House of Representatives)
form of government in which political power belongs largely to one ruler, generally called a king or queen, who receives his or her position by claim or divine right or inherited right
Electoral College
an intermediary body that elects the president
Judicial Review
power of the supreme court to rule on the constitutionality of laws
Separation of powers
the institutional arrangement that assigns judicial, executive, and legislative powers to different persons of groups, thereby limiting powers of each
Checks and Balances
the principle that allows each branch of gov't to exercise some form of control over the others
10th Ammendment
federal government is limited to only the powers it is granted in the constitution
Necessary and proper clause
constitutional authorization for Congress to make any law required to carry out its powers
Concurrent powers
powers that are shared by both the federal and state gov't
Dual federalism
the federal system under which the national and state gov't were responsible for separate policy areas
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court ruling (1819) confirming the supremacy of national over state gov't
Dred Scott v. Sanford
all slaves are property
declaration by a state that a federal law is void within its borders
Unfunded mandates
a federal order that states operate and pay for a program created at the national level
Federalist No. 84
paper by Alexander Hamilton
Habeas Corpus
the right of an accused person to be brought before a judge and informed of the charges and evidence against him or her
Selective incorporation
incorporation of rights on a case-by-case basis
Establishment clause
the first ammendment guarantee that the gov't will not create and support an official church
Clear and present danger
rule used by the courts thallows language to be regulated only if it presents an immediate and urgent danger
Political correctness
the idea that language shapes behavior and therefore should be regulated to control its social effects
Fourth ammendment
protects every person against unreasonable search and seizure by government officials
Exclusionary rule
rule created by the Supreme Court that evidence illegally seized may not be used to obtain a conviction
Miranda v. Arizona
the Court held that suspects, prior to bring interrogated by police, must be informed of their rights under the fifth and sixth ammendments
Lawrence v. Texas
the justices invalidated the criminal prohibition of homosexual sodomy in Texas
Civil rights
citizenship rights guaranteed to the people and protected by the govt
Civil liberties
individual freedoms guaranteed to the people primarily by the Bill of Rights
Strict Scrutiny
a heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to assess the constitutionality of laws that limit some freedoms or that make a suspect classification
Black codes
a series of laws in the post-Civil war South designed to restrict the rights of former slaves before the passage of the 14th and 15th ammendments
Brown v. Board of Education
Supreme Court case that rejected the idea that separate could be equal in education, catalyst for civil rights movement
De Jure
discrimination arising from or supported by the law
De facto
discrimination that is the result not of law but rather of tradition and habit
Seneca Falls
1848 convention where men and women who supported the extension of rights to women issued a Declaration of Principles that deliberatly sought to evoke the sentiments of those calling for freedom from political oppression
Americans with Disabilities Act
a 1990 federal law that forbids discrimination against persons who are disabled
Plessy v. Ferguson
seperate but equal, legalised serparation (1897)
Gaines Decision
1936-48 to use Plessy in order to intergrate
Bradley Decision
1973--busing not allowed in order to intergrate de facto segregated school districts
Williams v. Mississippi
upheld State's rights, poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clause all declared consitituional
Bradley v. Illinois
Illinois constitutionally denied law licenses to women, because the right to practice law was not one of the privelages and immunities guaranteed by the fourth amendment