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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 of 7 ways of participating in local government
voting, testifying in meetings, contacting public officials, protesting, using media
def: indirect and direct democracy.
direct: citizens can petition to have law on ballot, and if passed, it becomes law.

indirect: if passed, legislature can reject, approve or modify.
def: general referendum
proposed law is first passed by legislature and then placed on ballot for voters.
def: open meeting laws
meetings of committees and officials nust be open to the public except for personnel and contract meetings.
What type of interest group is most influencial?
business groups
def: interest groups
an origanization that has a direct interest in political activity
what are characteristics of states that have more interest groups?
increased urbanizationm proffesionalism, and competitive parties
what are the functions and activities of interest groups?
provide information, advocate policies, mobilize voters, and give feedback
what the difference between closed and open primaries?
closed primary: does not allow voters registered with one party to vote in primaries of other parties.

open: allows anyone to vote for candidates running for one party's nomination
what are the roles of political parties?
to be responsible and to support candidates that have their party's phylosophy
How do states determine ballot requirements?
the determine registration requirements, how ballots are casted, and how the are counted.
whats the difference between hard money and soft money?
hard money requires the donation information to be publicly availble
what are the jobs of a governor?
cheif spokesman, head of agencies, party chief, ceremonial leader
what are formal powers of a governor?
appointment, develop budgets, veto, grant pardons, call special sessions
what are informal powers of a governor?
gain popular support, gain party support, use mass media to communicate ''bully pulpit''
what are three jobs of legislatures?
pass laws, create policy, provide representation
def: apportionment
allocation of districts
def: gerrymandering
drawing electoral lines to gain partisan advantage
def: sunset laws
termination of agencies over a period of time
what's the difference between strong mayor and weak mayor?
weak: elected chief executive has little formal authority over appointments, no or limited veto power, and minor formal role in budgeting.

Strong: significant formal authority over appointments, vetoing, and central role in forming budgets
def: city council
elected body that is responsible for running government.
def: bureaucracies
administrative agencies for public policies
what are 4 characteristics of bureaucracies?
job specialisation, system rulesm impersonality, hierachy of authority.
what do merit systems prevent?
partisan ties
def: administrative rules
legally binding regulations issued by administartive agency
def: standing
determination by the court that a party has sufficient tangible interest in a dispute to allow thenm to pursue their rights in a lawsuit.
def: jurisdiction
dtermination by the court that has the authority under stature or constitution to hear and rule on a dispute
def: grand jury
a panel assembled to consider whether enough evidence exists to issue an indictment
what are 5 of defendants' rights?
- right to be presumed innocnet until proven otherwise
- right to no search or seizure without probable cause
- right to a lawyer
- right to comfront witnesses
- right to due process and equal protection
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