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83 Cards in this Set

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One house Legislature with one vote for each state
New Jersey Plan
Bicameral legislature, an executive chosen by the legislature and a judiciary named by the legislature
Virginia Plan
A document establishing the structure, function, and limitations of government.
Constitution
Result of forcibly restrained the state court from foreclosing mortgages on farms
Shays's Rebellion
Document that would be the basis of the colonies government
Articles of Confederation
Document proclaiming the right of the American colonies to seperate from Great Britian
Declaration of Independence
Type of government where the national government derives its powers from the states
Confederation
Meeting at which it was decided that an army should raise
Second Continental Congress
Meeting held to accept a resolution in opposition to the Coercive Acts
First Continental Congress
Organizations in each colony created to keep colonists abreast of developments with the British
Committees of Correspondance
Meeting of representatives of 9 of 13 colonies held in New York in 1765 during which representatives drafted a list to king on how their rights have been violated
Stamp Act Congress
An economic theory dessigned to increase a nations wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade
mercantilism
One who favors a free market economy and no governmental interference in personal liberties
Libertaian
One considered to favor extensive governmental involvement in the economy and the provision of social services and to take an activist role
Liberal
one thought to believe that a government is best that governs least and that big government can only infringe on individual, personal, and economic rights
coonservative
The coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals
political ideology
Society created when citizens are allowed to organize and express their views publicly as they engage in an open debate about public policy
Civil Society
A doctrine that society should be governed by certain ethical priciples that are part of nature and can be understand by reason
Natural Law
The right of the majority to govern themselves
Popular sovereignty
Only policies that are supported of a majority of voters will be made into law
Majority Rule
The idea that govt must draw their powers from the consent of the governed
popular consent
Commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values about how govt should operate
political culture
A govt rooted in the consent of the governed
Republic
A system of govt that gives citzens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf
Indirect (representative) Democracy
A system of govt in which members of the policy meet to discuss all policy decisions and then agree to abide by majority rule
direct democracy
The belief that people are free and equal by God-given rights
Social Contract theory
An agreement between the people and their govt signifying their consent to be governed
Social Contract
A system of govt that gives power to tthe people wheather directly or through their elected representatives
Democracy
A form of govt in which the right to participate is conditioned on the possession of wealth, social status, military postion, or achievement
oligarchy
An economic system in which the govt has total control over the economy
totalitarianism
A form of govt in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern in the interests of all
monarchy
The study of who gets what, when, and how, or how policy decisions are made
Politics
Members of the political community to whom certain rights and obligations are attached
citizen
a collective of individuals and institutions, the formal vehicles through which policies are made and affairs of state are conducted
Government
A decision to give each state the same number of representives in the Senate regardless of size
Great Compromise
An agreement that each slave was to be counted as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of determining population
3/5ths Compromise
dividing power among three branches
separation of powers
A governmental structure that gives each branch some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others
Checks and balances
power is divided between the national and the state government
federal system
17 specific powers granted to congress...these powers include taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce, and the authority to provide for a national defense.
enmerated powers
clause that gives congress the authority to pass all laws "necessary and proper"
necessary and proper clause
powers derived from the enerated powers and necessary and proper clause. These powers and not stated specifically.
implied powers
clause stating that national law is supreme to all other alls
supremacy clause
those who favored a stronger national government and supported the proposed U.S. Constitution
Federalists
Those who favored strong state governments and weak national government
Anti-Federalists
a series of 85 political papers written by James Madison in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution
The Federalist Papers
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution
Bill of Rights
System of government where the national government and the state governments derive all authority from the people
Federal system
system of governmment where the local and regional governments derive all authority from a strong national government
unitary system
Clause guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states
privileges and immunities clause
Amendment stating "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Consitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively"
Tenth Amendment
powers reserved to the states by the Tenth amendment that lie at the foundation of a state's right to legislate for the public health and welfareof its citzens
reserve (or police) powers
authority possessed by both the state and national governments that may be exercised concurrently as long as that power is not exclusively within the scope of national power or in conflict with national law
concurrent powers
a law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial
bill of attainder
law passed after the fact, thereby making previosly legal activity illegal and subject to current penalty
ex post facto law
clause that ensures judicial degrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state
full faith and credit clause
contracts between states that carry the force of law; generally now used as a tool to address multistate policy concerns
interstate compacts
The supreme court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the bank
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
The supreme court upheld broad congreeional power to regulate interstate commerce
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
The belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is the best arrangement
dual federalism
Amendment that authorized Congress to enact a national income tax
Sixteenth Amendment
made senators directly elected by the people
Seventeenth Amendment
the relationship between the national and state governments that began with the New Deal
cooperative federalism
grant for which Congress appropriates funds for a specific purpose
categorical grant
hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments
New Federalism
broad grant given to the states by the federal government for specified activities, such as secondary education.
block grant
National laws that direct states or local governments to comply with federal rules but no federal funding to defray the cost of meeting these requirements
unfunded mandates
A concept derived from the Constitution's supremacy clause that allows the national government to override or preempt state or local actions in certain areas
preemption
The right of a state to be free from lawsuits unless it gives permission to the suit. Under the eleventh Amendment, all states are consided sovereign.
sovereign immunity
Types of governments
monarchy, totalitarianism, oligarchy, democracy
Thomas Hobbes's theory
One sided contract (vodka)
John Locke's theory
Two sided social contract
What are the two opinions on the defintion of "militia" and how it should be interpreted today?
Individual or collective

individual
What is the significance of United States v. Emerson and United States v. Stewart concerning an individual's right to own a firearm?
US v. Stewart-police grow when we cannot protect ourselves and past Troops armed against unarmed individuals

US v. Emerson-some persons and weapons are resticted
How do liberal scholars Alan Dershowitz, Laurence Tribe and Akhil Amar support the viewpoint of an individual's right under the Second Amendment to possess arms?
The limited provisions in Art.1 Sec 8 and Modern Militia Act
Explain Farber's argument that the judicial philosophy of "originalism" is not appropriate for judges to determine the meaning of the Second Amendment.
There is no way for anyone to determine without a doubt of the farmers intent there for "originalism" is a failure.
How does Farber use Akhil Amar's explanation of "militia" to argue his position?
He uses it to explan how time has changed and "originalism is gone.
According to Farber, who is the "guarantor of liberty" and what events or justification does he use?
The Federal Government

The Civil War
What do each of the Fifthteenth, Nineteenth and Twenty-sixth Amendments have to do with voting?
15th-race, color, servitude
19th-sex
26th-age
What did the "Carter-Barker Report" recommand regarding voting?
having to provide Id when voting
What questionable actions of the Association of Community Organizations for Reform were cited be Rogers?
registration of underage kids
What was the summary for the Tufts University study of non-citizen voting in Massachusetts?
"there is a growing support for non-citizen voting nationwide, and action taken by lobbyists, activists, non-citizens, and other key stakeholders can lay the foundation for a more favorable outcome in the future."
How does Chen use the "Bureaucratic Barrier," Natural and/or personal Disasters," "Language Barriers" and "Economic Barriers" to build a case for rejecting personal indentification for voters?
Bureaucratic Barrier-most people dont have the required documents on hand for this.

Natural and/or personal Disasters-dont have info because of natural disasters

Language Barriers-LEP hard to understand new requirements

Economic Barriers-low income communities it is like a poll tax.