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53 Cards in this Set

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Magna Carta
The idea first appeared here that the gov't was not all-powerful. TRIAL BY JURY, DUE PROCESS OF LAW, RIGHT TO PRIVATE PROPERTY.
The Petition of Rights
Limited the King's power. NO KING TAX COLLECTION, NO QUARTERING OF SOLDIERS IN HOME AND A PERSON CANNOT BE IMPRISONED WITHOUT A CAUSE.
English Bill of Rights
Set clear limits on what a ruler could or couldn't do. NO CRUEL AND UNUSUAL PUNISHMENT, NO EXCESSIVE BAIL, RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS, RIGHT TO PETITION THE GOV'T.
Two Treatises of Gov't
John Locke. Helped state that people should contract among themselves to form gov't to protect natural rights.
The Spirit of Laws
MONTESQUIEU. Popularized the idea of SEPARATION OF POWERS.
Leviathan
Thomas Hobbs. First to theorize on the SOCIAL CONTRACT between citizens and gov't.
England taxing colonists. Colonists get mad and form ___. Next came the ____. Then the __. And finally the ____ which was the 1st national gov't and led to the ___.
The Albany Plan of Union; The Stamp Act Congress; 1st Continental Congress; 2nd Continental Congress; Declaration of Independence
Government
institution which the state maintains social order, provides public services and enforces binding decisions on citizens
What does the gov't do?
Enforce public policies- action which gov't responds to an issue.
What is a state
political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organizational gov't which the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher athority... about 200 in world.
4 Essential Characeristics of a State
Populatoin, Territory, Sovereighnty, Government
Force Theory
person or group forces control over an area... US!!
Evolutionary Theory
state originates in a family
Divine Right Theory
God(s) give consent to rule area
Social Contract Theory
Thomas Hobbs. People agree to give up power to state in return for state's services... US!!
The Preamble
goals of American gov't
The Articles
set up the gov't
The Amendments
protections against gov't
The Virginia Plan
Strong nat'l gov't with 3 branches, legislature reps based on POPULATION- favored large states
The New Jersey Plan
Increased power to collect taxes and regulate trade, equal reps in Congress, Resembled Articles of Confederation... favored small states
The Great Compromise (The Connecticut Compromise)
3 Branches of Gov't- executive, legislative, and judicial. Congress=bicameral; senate equal reps, house population reps
Concurrent Powers
Powers that both the nat'l gov't and the states SHARE. (power to tax)
National Powers
"DELEGATED POWERS" the gov't only has power that is granted to it in the Constitution
EXPRESSED POWERS
WRITTEN IN CONSTITUTION (Congress coins money and collects taxes)
IMPLIED POWERS
Elastic Clause, Necessary & Proper Clause- power gov't requires to carry out expressed power (Congress builds interstate highway systems)
INHERANT POWERS
Powers a nation has simply being a nation (regulating immigration and acquiring territory).
State Power
RESERVED POWERS- power that belongs specifically to the state.
How states help the nation (2 ways)
conduct and pay for elections of nat'l officials, Amendment process 3/4
George Washington
Oversaw the Constitution, get ppl to trust its work.
Roger Sherman
Connecticut Compromise
Federalists
approved new constitutionn, feared anarchy
Antifederalists
opposed new constitution
3/5ths Compromise
Slaves count as 3/5ths a person
Popular Sovereignty
people give the gov't consent to rule
Federalism
POWER DIVIDED BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENT. Political parties are key. Affects how policies are made and limits in policy making.
Limited Gov't
limits written in Constitution
JUDICIAL REVIEW
courts have power to declare acts of COngress and the president unconstitutional. MARBURY VS MADISON-1803
Separation of Powers
each of 3 branches has its own role
Checks and Balances
each branch has some control over the other branches.
Need of Compromise
THE necessary tool for democracy
Amendment 1
freedom of religion, speech, peition, assemble, press
Amendment 4
No illegal seach and seizure
Amendment 5
Due Process- list of rights protected a accused criminal
Amendment 8
No cruel and unusual punishment
Brief Description of Judicial Branch
Establishes the COURT SYSTEM. The Supreme Court is the highest in land. Declare Constitutionality and interpret meaning of laws
Brief Description of Executive Branch.
Carries out the laws and makes sure they are obeyed. President, VP, cabinet and independent agencies.
Brief Description of Legislative Branch
Makes laws, House of Representatives and Senate
How Executive Branch checks and balances the Legislative Branch
VETO BILLS, RECOMMEND LEGISLATION
How Executive Branch checks and balances the Judicial Branch
President NOMINATES FEDERAL JUDGES AND MAY ENFORCE COURT ORDERS
How Judical Branch checks and balances the Executive Branch
Declare president's actions unconstitutional
How Judicial Branch checks and balances the Legislative Branch
Declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
How Legislative Branch checks and balances the Executive Branch
Creates executive agencies, override veto 2/3, impeach president, confirm presidential appointments
How Legislatve Branch checks and balances the Judicial Branch
Impeach judges, create lower federal courts, set size of supreme court, determine judicial salaries and confirm judges