Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
state constitution
the plan that creates the structure of a state government
removal of judges
proposal and ratification
the two steps in the process of amending a state constitution
constitutional convention
a meeting of citizens, usually elected by popular vote, to consider changing or replacing a constitution
item veto
the power to turn down a particular section or item in a piece of legislation without vetoing the entire law
a procedure by which voters petition to propose an amendment to the state constitution
civil case
a legal dispute between individuals or organizations
organized in two houses, like the United States Congress
standing committee
a permanent committee in a state legislature
political base
groups or sections of a state among whom a candidate enjoys popularity and influence
speaker of the house
the presiding officer in the lower house of a state legislature
lieutenant governor or senate president
the presiding officer in the upper house of a state legislature
the Missouri Plan
selection process for judges that combines appointment by the governor with election by the people
legislative reference service
an agency that provides assistance in drafting bills to members of a state legislature
party primary
an election held before the general election in which voters choose from several candidates for a party's nomination
All states except Delaware ratify amendments to the state constitution by
popular vote
the Supreme Court's ruling in Reynolds v. Sims (1964) tended to give more voting power to
suburban and urban areas
A state constitution does all of the following EXCEPT
describe how federal law will be interpreted in the state
All of the following are criticisms of state constitutions in general EXCEPT
they contradict the federal Constitution
In general, the length and frequency of state legislative sessions is
A state bill may be introduced
in either the lower or the upper house
A nominating election for governor is called a
party primary
Negotiating for grants from the federal government is part of what function of a governor?
spokesperson for the state
The number of cases introduced in state courts
is much greater than the number of federal cases
The Missouri Plan for selecting judges combines
governor appointment and general election
a wrongful act that could result in a lawsuit
corporate charter
a document that grants a business legal status in a state
public utility
a privately or publicly owned company that supplies such necessities as electricity, gas, or telephone service
a business that has no competition
workers' compensation
government payments to workers unable to work because of job-related injury or illness
unemployment compensation
government payments to workers who have lost their jobs
tax credit
a reduction in taxes that a state government offers to businesses
mandatory sentencing
a system in which a state government imposes a fixed, required term of imprisonment for a certain type of crime
a legal procedure by which a person who is accused of a crime and has fled to another state is returned to the state where the crime was committed
public defender
a lawyer who serves as a state or local government employee and whose full-time job is to defend poor clients
a pledge of money or property given to a court as a guarantee that a defendant will return for trial after being released
a charge made by agrand jury that says a person should be tried for a certain crime
a procedure in which the defendant appears before a judge to be formally charged with a crime and to plead guilty or not guilty
plea bargaining
a process by which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for a promise from the prosecutor to reduce the charges
shock probation
a sentence in which a young offender is briefly exposed to prison life and then placed under supervised release
In regulating corporations in the 1890s, states relaxed controls to prevent
losing large businesses to other states
All of the following are state laws to protect consumers EXCEPT
limitations on the hours a juvenile may work
Which phrase best describes the differences between the environmental policies of state governments and those of the national government since 1980?
more active
Which of the following requires cooperation between state governments?
A state can tax all of the following EXCEPT
imports of foreign goods
Which of the following helps the most to reduce the caseload in state courts?
plea bargaining
Which of the following is usually the largest percentage of a state budget?
education funding
In general, how is the funding for welfare programs under the Social Security Act divided between the federal government and the states?
Fed.- 50% & States- 50%
The largest revenue source for state government is
A state that wanted to renovate a Civil War museum would apply for what kind of federal aid?
project grant
local government
the form of government closest to the people
state constitution
the document that usually sets forth the powers and duties of local governments and may even describe the form of government a locality may adopt
an urban unit of government such as a town, borough, or city
special district
a unit of local government that deals with a specific function such as education, water supply, or transportation
county board
a committee of officials who ohld a county's power of government
home rule
the power of cities to govern themselves, without state approval
property tax
a tax on things that citizens own, such as land and buildings
the funds borrowed by a local government that it must repay with interest by a certain date
tax assessor
a government official responsible for determining the value of property that is to be taxed
market value
the price a person may expect to receive by selling an item of property
assessed value
a percentage of a property's real value, used by a local government in calculating the tax the owner should pay on a property
impact fee
a local tax paid by builders, based on the effect new construction will have on community services
sales tax
a state or local tax on items and services sold there
the federal funds given to local governments so they can pay for programs specified by the federal government
revenue sharing
the practice of federal tax money being returned to state and local governments for unrestricted use
The power to establishand control local governments is held by the
state governments
The main function of local governments is to
provide services
Local governments use zoning laws to accomplish all of the following goals EXCEPT
providing public transportation
Local governments are adopting new structures and procedures for all the following reasons EXCEPT the
reduction of need for local services
Officials of county governments enforce and administer state laws and provide services in all regions EXCEPT in
New England
Legislative business carried out in town meetings is conducted by
all the voters or their selectmen
Local governments control the amoung of revenue collected by all the following methods EXCEPT
block grants
Property taxes are often viewed as unfair for all the following reasons EXCEPT the
difficulty of collecting these taxes
All of the following are examples of intergovernmental revenue EXCEPT
state and federal bonds
To give local governments unrestricted use of federal funds, Congress replaced revenue sharing with
block grants