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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
factors that contribute to the voting patterns of congress
1)constituents views: people back home
2)Party views
3)Personal views
bicameral (two-house) Congress
the senate and the house of representatives.
original voting in constitution
house was voted on directly and senate was chosen by legislatures of that state. House based on population and two senators per state
17th amendment
direct election of senators
representative requirements
25 years old
seven year citizen of the US
citizen of state represented
senator requirements
six year term
30 years old
nine years a citizen
citzen of state represented
Constituional powers
-lay and collect taxes, duties, imports and excises
-borrow money
-regulate commerce with foreign nations among the stats
-to establish rules for naturalization and bankruptcy
-to coin money
-to fix the standard of weights and measures
-to estabish a post office and post roads
-to issue patents and copyrights
-to creat courts (other than the supreme court)
-to define and punish piracies
-to declare war
-to raise and support an army and navy
-to exercise exclusive legislative powers over the DC and other federal facilities
elastic clause
necessary and proper: alls the gov to make all laws which shall be necessary
exclusive rights for House
Revenue bills
impeachment power (can also make the charge not the trial)
exclusive rights of senate
-Major presidential appointments
-treaties with other nations
-initiates all revenue bills
-initials impeachment procedures and passes articles of impeachments
-two year terms
-425 memebers (appointed by population)
-Members at least 25 years of age, 7 years a citizen
-must comfirm many major presidential appointments
-tries impeachment charges against officials
-six year terms (onethir up for reelection every two years
-100 memebers (two from each state)
-senators at least 30
-approves treaties
Oversight of the budget
congress reviews and restricts the annual buget prepared by executive brance.
-approbriation can only be set by congress: the actual amount available in a fiscal year
congress can investigate issues that warrant study.
Speaker of the house
most important position in the house
(provieded for by the constitution)
-chooses candidate by majority party
-has typically held other leadership positions and is a senior member of the party.
duty of speaker
-recognizing members who wish to speak
-ruling on questions of parlimentary procedure
-appointing members to select and conference committees
-directing business on the floor
-exercising poltical and behind-the-scenes influence
-appointing members of the committees who appoint memebers to standing committees
-excersising substantial control over which bills get assigned to which committees
-appointing party's legislative leaders
Majority leader
speakers most important colleague
-resposible for scheduling bills and rounding up votes for bills the party favors
minority leader
spokes person for the minority party
-steps into the position of speaker when and if his or her party gains a majority in the house
party whips
serve as go-between for the members and the leadership. they inform memebers when important bills will come up for vote, do nosecounts for the leadership and pressure memebers to support the leadership
President of the senate
vice president of the US. can only vote in case of a tie and seldom attends sentate sessions.
president pro tempore
senior member in the party.
The official chair, the job of presiding over the senate is ususally given to a junior senitor
real leaders of the senate
majority leader and minority leader
majority leader
the right to be first senator heard on the floor. determines the senates agenda and usually has much to say about committee assignments.
(minoity leader does not have a lot of say)
party whips
same as in house
4 types of committees
standing, select, joint, and conference
standing committes
-hadel bills in different policy areads
-usually long lasting
select committees
-ususally temporary
--formed for a specific purpose (sometimes become standing committees)
Joint committee
same purpose as select committees, but they consist of members from both house and senate
conference committees
formed to hammer out differences between house and senate versions of similar bills.
bills are forgotten for weeks and forever
Steering committee
makes committee assignments (within each party of the senate)
The rules committee in the house of prepresentatives
close rule
open rule
close rule
gag rule. sets strict time limits on debates and forbids amendments from the floor, except those from the presenting committee.
open rule
amendments has less strict time limits
groupings of members of congress sharing the same interests or points of view
-goal is to shape the agenda of the Congress which they do by elevating their issues or interests to a prominent place in the daily workings of congress
who is in congress
-90% male
-well educated
-upper-middle or upper income backgrouds (most)
-most are protestants
-most are white
-average age is 60 for senators and 55 for representatives
40% are lawyers
franking privledge
more experiences with campaigning
Wesberry v Sanders:
wesberry v sanders
court ordered that districts be drawn so that one person's vote would be equal as possible to another (the one man one vote decision)
originally meant to give one political party an advantage over the over. District boundaries are drawn in strange ways in order to make it easy for one candidate for on party to win election in that district.
continuation of gerrymandering/ minority/majority districting
rearranging the districts to allow a minority representative to be elected
Shaw v reno
plaintiffs charged justice department with reverse discrimination based on the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. the court allowed the district lines to be redrawn according to Justice department standards
Easley v cromartie
racial gerrymandering.
race may be a factor in redistricting ut not the dominate and controlling one
making a law
idea- can be formed by almost anyone
introduction of a bill
bills in committee
(house: Rules Committee)
floor debate
conference committee action
presidetial action
introduction of a bill
must be introduced in house and senate. any memeber of house can hand a bill to the clerk or drop it in a hopper
in senate the presiding officer must recognize the memeber and annouse the bill's introduction
house bills are H.R.
senate bills are S
if a bill is not passed by both houses and signed by the president within the life of one congress, it is dead and must be presidented again at another point
bills in committee
after introduction, a bill is referred to committtee
most bills die in committee.
discharge petition
218 memebers of house to bring a bill to the floor but this ususally doesnt happen.. ususally bills are referred to the floor only after committee recommendation
for a bills to come before either hosue it must be first placed on a calener (five in the house and two in the senate
House calenders
Union Calender: bills to raise revenue or spend money
House Calender: nonmoney bills of major importance
private calender: private bills that do not affect the general welfare
consent calender- noncontroversial bills
discharge calender- discharge petitions
senate calender
executive calender: presidential nominations, proposed treaties
calender of business: all legislation
Rules committee
before it can go to the floor in the house of representatives, it must first go to the rules comittee that sets time limited and amendment regulations for debate. bills in senate go straight from committee to floor
Floor debate
important bills must be referred to comittee of the whole but is directed by the chairman of the sponsoring committee. sometimes bills are significatly altered, but usually the bills goes to the full floor, where the speaker resides, and debate is guided by more formal ruless.
senators mayb speak for as long as they wish which can lead to a filibuster (practice of talking a bill to death)
a flibuster can only be stopped by a cloture (3/5 senate votes to stop debate)
no limit exists on amendment, so riders occur. This is known as a christmas -tree bill
(more formal in the house than in the senate)
Teller vote: members file past the clerk, first the yeas and then the nays
Voice vote- simply shout yea or nay
division vote- members stand to be counted
roll call vote- people answer yea or nay to their names. (can also be 1/5 of house membership)
electronic voting- each memeber inserts a plastic card in a slot to record his or her vote

votes in the same way but does not have electronic voting
Conference Comittee action
if bill is not approved by both houses, it must begin again. if one is passsed by one house and not the other, it dies
when senate cannot resolve