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34 Cards in this Set

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Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier
Hazelwood school officials took out a student-written article out of the school newspaper because it was inappropriate. student argued under the 1st ammendment. Court decided that the students' rights were limited in school.
Cruzan vs. Missouri health dept.
Cruzan in bad car accident- on life support & parents want to remove life support b/c she was in vegetative state. Court decided she had the right to death and parents were denied the right to make that decision
Tinker vs. Board of Education
student and faculty wear black armbands to passivly protest the vietnam war. School demanded they be removed. There was no "evidence of substantial disturbance." court decided their right to wear these was protected under the first ammendement.
Engle vs. Vitale
schools required to recite a 22 word prayer at school. Parents protested saying it violated the first ammendment. Set a precedent: not prayer in public schools.
New Jersey vs. T.L.O.
girl was accused of smoking in school bathroom, principal searched her purse and found marajuana and girl was arrested. Claimed unreasonable search & seizure. Court decided students' rights at school are limited
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Louisiana law-required seperate seating for white and blacks. 14th ammendment not intended for social equality, but political. "separate but equal"
Brown vs. Board of Education
overturned plessy vs. ferguson. Separate is NOT equal. Black girl wasn't allowed to attend a black school. precedent set: racial equality.
Plantiff
initiates case
Only thing from judicial brach spelled out in constitution
supreme court (article III)
Dual court system
federal courts and state courts
Constitutional courts
the fereal courts formed by congress
Special courts
hear cases arising out of some of the expressed powers given to congress
4 types of cases that belong to a federal court
1. cases involving national laws
2. cases involving maritime laws
3. where two or more states are involved
4. where foreign govts. are involved
How are federal judges appointed and confirmed?
appointed by president, approved by congress
inferior courts
those beneath supreme court
how were district courts created?
by congress in the judiciary act of 1789
Why were courts of Appeals created?
to relieve the supreme cour of the burden of hearing appeals
Which federal courts hear the majorit of cases?
constitutional courts
What kind of juristiction does the supreme court have?
concurrent
A court that hears appeals from lower courts has what kind of juristiction?
appellate jurisdiction
Judicial Review
using past cases to make decisions for present cases
What case established judicial review?
marburry vs. madison
Writ of certiorari
an order issued by a higher court directing court to sen up the record of a case for its review
When does the supreme court meet?
from oct. to june/july
Brief
must be filed before they hear a case
Amicus curiae
filed by people who aren't actual parties to a case but have a substantial interest in its outcome
In what order to justices vote during their conference?
reverse order junior --> senior
Majority opinion
highest ranking justice assigns who writes the court's opinion. Decideds court decision and precedent set.
Concurring opinion
written by one of the majority to make or emphasize a point not made in the majority opinion
dissenting opinion
supreme court justice and disagree w/ majority of the court
What kind of jurisdiction does a case have being heard for the first time?
origional jurisdiction
# of supreme court justices needed to make a decision
4/9
Current chief justice
John roberts
Only AA on supreme court
Clarence Thomas