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32 Cards in this Set

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changes in pregnancy
increase plasma volume
decrease hemoglobin and meatocrit (dilutional effect)
increase GFR and creatinine clearance (increased plasma volume)
decreased BUN/creatinine/uric acid
increased renal clearance
alkaline phosphate in pregnancy
increased
acidosis or alkalosis in pregnancy?
respiratory alkalosis because estrogen/progesterone effect on CNS respiratory center causes increased clearance of CO2 per breath
hormones in pregnancy
increased T4 and cortisol
free hormone levels in pregnancy
normal (no signs of hyperthyroidism or hypercortisol)
ALP in children
3-5 times higher than in adults
what is ALP?
alkaline phosphatase. osteoblasts release it when stimulated by vit D
serum phosphate
drives calcium into bone
hemoglobin in children
slightly lower than adults
newborn hemoglobin
high due to increase in HgbF
newborn oxygen curve
left shift causes tissue hypoxia, stimulates EPO release, increases RBC production with subequent increase in HgB concentration
HgbF
left shifts oxygen dissociation curve
HgbF
protects newborns with sickle cell disease
concentration of HgbS must be what % for spontaneous sickling?
60%
dactylitis
bone infarctions of digits - begins in 6-9 months
what increases HgbF synthesis?
hydroxyurea
how do you reduce sickle cell crises?
hydroxyurea
LDH1
greater than LDH2
intracellular cation
K
pseudohyperkalemia
does NOT show peaked T wave
triglyceride coming from chylomicrons
falsely increases serum triglyceride levels
how do you eliminate chylomicrons?
fasting
chylomicrons
diet-derived triglycerides
fasting or lack of fasting doesn't affect
cholesterol and HDL
cholesterol is less than what % of chylomicron fraction?
3%
fasting is unnecessary for accurate
cholesterol or HDL
fasting is necessary for
LDL
LDL =
CH - HDL - TG/5
what drugs enhance cytochrome system in liver Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)?
alcohol, barbiturates, rifampin, phenytoin
smooth endoplasmic reticulum hyperplasia
increased synthesis of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT)
woman on phenytoin takes birth control pills and gets pregnant
phenytoin revved up smooth endoplasmic reticulum and increased metabolism of birth control pill
what drugs inhibit the cytochrome system in the liver?
H2 blockers, proton blockers