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107 Cards in this Set

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Zachary Taylor
Twelfth President of the United States, Mexican War officer
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
agreement signed on February 2, 1848, between the United States and Mexico that marked the end of the Mexican War
Wilmot Proviso
amendment attached to an appropriations bill adopted in 1846 by the U.S. House of Representatives, proposed by David Wilmot
brought into sharp focus the differences then existing on the slavery question, the proviso was the subject of widespread controversy that resulted in increased hostility between the northern and southern states. The principle of the amendment became the basic policy of both the Free-Soil Party and the Republican Party.
Popular Sovereignty
practice of letting people decide issues
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Granted citizens in Nebraska and Kansas territory the right to decide if slavery should be allowed
Bleeding Kansas
Day of battle resulting from clashes over slavery
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe about a slave and his master increasing hostility between the N and the S
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin
abolition
movement to end slavery
Harriet Tubman
"Conductor" on the underground Railroad, which helped slaves escape to freedom
Henry Clay
Statesmen from Kentucky; accused by Jackson of giving votes to John Q. Adams in return for post as secretary of state; endoresed government promotion of economic growth; advocate of Compromise of 1850
John C. Calhoun
Statesmen from SC who held many offices in the federal govt; supported slavery, cotten exports, states' rights; in 1850 foresaw future conflicts over slavery
Daniel Webster
Statesmen from Massachusetts who had opposed the extention os slavery but didnt support the compromise of 1850 arguing that slavery would never be practical in Mexico and that it was a constitutional duty to return fugitive slaves
Compromise of 1850
1.California admitted as a new state
2.New Mexico and Utah vote for slavery
3.Congress would abolish sale of enslaved people except in Washington DC
4.Texas would give up claims to NM for $10 million
5.A strict fugitive slave law
Republican Party
Did not want slavery to spread into the territories
Fugitive SLave Law
ordered all citizens to assist in the return of escaped slaves and would deny a jury trial to escaped slaves.
Slave Codes
Codes to try to keep the newly freed slaves in almost the same position that they had been in as slaves
Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857
Controversial case considered to be a key cause of the civil war
Harpers Ferry
raiders had seized the federal armory and arsenal there
John Brown
leader of raid on harpers ferry
secession
withdrawal formally from membership in a group or organization
Freeport Doctrine
Douglas's opinion that slavery could be excluded from a territory, despite the Dred Scott decision, if the people refused to enact the necessary local laws for its protection
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
series of 7 debates
Confederation
South
Confederate states of America
Association of seven seceding southern states, formed in 1861
Civil War
War between the Union states of the North and the Confederate states of the South; fought from 1861 to 1865
Stephen Douglas
Illinois senator who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska act, which allowed new territories to choose their own position on slavery; debated Abraham Lincoln on slavery issues in 1858`
Know-Nothing Party
promoted nativism, a movement to ensure that native born Americans receive better treatment than immigrants.
Nativist
a movement to ensure that native born Americans receive better treatment than immigrants.
Free-Soil Party
people that lived in territories that didn't want slavery
Sumner-Brooks Affair
sumner charles assaulted by preston brooks
Election of 1860
Election of Abraham Lincol causeing the lower south to secede
Abraham Lincoln
Sixteenth President of the US; known for his effective leadership during the civil war and his emancipation proclamation declaring the end of slavery in confederate-held territory
Federalism
a political system in which several states or regions defer some powers, e.g. in foreign affairs, to a central government while retaining a limited measure of self-government
states' rights
the powers that the constitution neither gives to the federal government nor denies to the states
Fort Sumter
In January 1861 President James Buchanan tried to send troops and supplies to Major Robert Anderson, commander of the garrison at Fort Sumter. Star of the West, the ship Buchanan sent, was an unarmed merchant vessel. When the shore batteries at Charleston Harbor fired on the ship, it sailed away
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy
John Brown's Raid
Raid on Harper's Ferry
"To Preserve the Union"
Lincolns primary aim at the beginning of the war
border states
Missouri, Kentucky, W. Virginia, Maryland, Delaware
copperheads
peace democrats
martial law
emergency rule by military authorites, during which some Bill of Rights guarantess are susupended
writ of habeas corpus
legal protection requiring that a court determine if a person is lawfully imprisoned
greenback
name given to the national paper currency created in 1861
war of attrition
a type of war in which one side inflicts continuous losses on the other in order to wear down its strength
King Cotton
American economy before the civil war in which cotton was king
anaconda plan
the norths plan consisting of three parts
1.defend washington
2.control mississippi
3.bockade the south
blockade
an organized action to prevent people or goods entering or leaving a place
Battle of Antietam
battle on which there were the most casualties in one day
Emancipation Proclamation
a presidential decree by president lincoln, effective jan 1, 1863, that freed slaves in confederate held territory
George McClellan
Early Union army leader in the Civil war; careful organizer and planner who moved too slowly for northern politicians; ran against prestident abe lincoln in the election of 1864
Ulysses S. Grant
18th pres of US;commander of the union forces who accepted lee's surrender in 1865
Sherman's March to the Sea
destructive march from atlanta to savannah in 1864 led by william t sherman
P.G.T. Beauregard
Opened fire on Fort Sumter
Stonewall Jackson
Confederate general known for his swift strikes against union forces;earned nickname stonewall by holding his forces steady uner extreme pressure at the first battle of manassas
robert E. Lee
Brilliant general of Confederate forces during the civil war
First Battle of Bull Run
The first battle of the civil war
Battle of Shiloh
Civil War Battle in Tennessee in 1862
Battle of Fredericksburg
Civil War battle in 1862 in virginia, won by the confederacy
Battle of Chancellorsville
Civil war battle in virginia won by the confederacy
battle of gettysburg
civil war battle in pennsylvania won by the union marking the turning point in the war
gettysburg address
a famous speech by president lincoln on the meaning of the civil war, given in novemeber 1863 at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the battle of gettysburg
vicksburg
the capture of this according to lincoln was the key to winning the war
ironclads/monitor and the merrimack
naval ships during the civil war
total war
complete destruction of everything in war's path
54th regiment of massachusetts
1st black regiment during the civil war
appomattox courthouse
courthouse where lee surrendered to grant
election of 1864
lincoln was re elected
john wilkes booth
assassinated president lincoln
whig party
in advocated a loose interpretation of the constitution
lincoln's assassination
On the night of April 14, 1865, while Lincoln was sitting in a box at Ford's Theatre, Washington, D.C., Booth shot him through the head.
clara barton
volunteer known as the "angel of the battlefield" during the civil war; founded the american red cross
reconstruction
the period of american history that followed the cilvil war in which the confederate states were restored to the union
andrew johnson
17th pres. of US; clashed with radical republicans on reconstruction programs;was impeached, then acquitted in 1868
Tenure of office Act
Act stating that the president could not dismiss a member of the cabinet without the senates approval
whiskey ring
a conspiracy among Internal Revenue Service officials to defraud the government of liquor taxes
Freedmans Bureau
supplied things to people who need them after the civil war
draft riots
initially represented protests in response to President Abraham Lincoln's Enrollment Act of Conscription to draft men to fight in the ongoing Civil War.
impeachment
accuse of wrongdoing
enforcement act of 1870
passed by congress to ban the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting because of their race
solid south
term used to describe the domination of post-civil war southern politics by the democratic party
compromise of 1877/hayes-tilden compromise
agreement in which democrats agreed to give rutherford b hayes the victory in the presidential elsection of 1876 and hayes in return agreed to remove the remaining federal troops from southern states
black codes
laws that restricted freedmen's rights
tenant farming
system of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter
sharecropping
system of farming in which a farmer tends some portion of a planter's land and receives a share of the crop at harvest time as payment
carpetbaggers
negative nickname for a northern republican who moved to the south after the civil war
scalawag
negative nickname for a white southern republican after the civil war
exodusters
an african american who migrated to the west after the civil war
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
got congress to pass the 14th amendment saying that everyone should have equal rights
jim crow laws
statutes, beginning in the 1890s, that required segregation of public services by race
grandfather clause
passage in a law that exempts a group of people from obeying the law if they had met certain conditions before the law was passed
literacy test
test given on ability to read and write in order to be eligible to vote
poll tax
a special fee that must be paid before a person can vote
wade-davis bill
1864 was proposed by Benjamin Wade and Henry Davis. It would have allowed seceded states to reenter the union after the United States Civil War if 50 percent of a state's voters took an oath of allegiance to the United States and the state submitted an acceptable constitution
thirtennth amendment
abolished slavery
Charles Sumner
Abolitionist and senator from massachusetts; beaten badly with a cane in the senate by a southern congressman after making an antislavery speech
pocket veto
if it’s not veto by the president within 10 days of getting it
civil rights act of 1866
gave further rights to the freed slaves after the end of the American Civil War. This act was the Republicans' counterattack against the Black Codes in the South.
fourteenth amendment
equal protection
pardon
exemption
Fifteenth Amendment
right to vote regardless of race
franchise
a right or privilege, or an exemption from a duty or obligation, granted by a government or other authority
ku klux klan
secret terrorist organization that originated in the Southern states during the period of Reconstruction following the American Civil War (1861-1865
election of 1876
the most disputed presidential election in American history. Samuel Tilden handily defeated Ohio's Rutherford Hayes in the popular vote, and had 184 electoral votes to Hayes' 165
military reconstruction
reconstruction of the military after the civil war
black male suffrage
the ability for black males to be allowed to vote
lincolns ten percent plan
when 10 percent of a confederate states voters took the oath the state could form a new government and adopt a new constitution