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9 Cards in this Set

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Glucose transporters
-Glut1:muscle&heart
stimulated by insulin vesicular fusion w/ PM,stimulated in muscle by hypoxia and diet
Glut2:liver,pancreas,inestine&kidney
-Glut3:neuron,kidney,placenta
-Glut4:muscle,heart,adipose,
insulin stimulated in adipose & muscle, if insulin or IGF-1 present then hypoxia & musc. contractions occur
-Glut5:muscle sarcolemma
Glycolysis
degrades 6C to 3C sugars to make lactate (anaerobic) or pyruvate(aerobic)
-overall uses 1 ATP to make 2pyruvate
-2NADH & net 2ATP
-entire pthwy is conserved
has 2 phases:
1.chem priming phase in need of ATP(2 ATP equiv. are used to convert glucose->fructose 1-6 bihosphate)
2.E yielding phase(fructose 1,6-bisphosphate degrades to pyruvate=4ATP & 2NADH
Rxn 1 of glycolysis:Hexokinase
glucose--[ATP]=>glucose 6 phosphate+ADP
glucose is phosphorylated & trapped in cell
Glucokinase
-in liver
-inc. Km for glucose so it's saturated only when inc levels of glucose
-post-prandial glucose is inc, glucokinase is inc which allows liver to trap & store
-when glucose levels dec. liver starts gluconeogenesis
Hexokinase
-brain & musc.
-dec Km
-scavenge when glucose levels are dec
-regulated by G6P allosteric inhibitor if enough glucose is accumulated
Rxn 2 of glycolysis:Phosphoglucose isomerase
glucose 6-phosphate--[phosphoglucose isomerase]=>fructose 6-phosphate
rxn is reversible
Rxn 3 of glycolysis:PFK-1
fructose 6-phos--[PFK-1+ATP]=>fructose 1,6 bisphosphate +ADP
-irreversible (commited step)
-PFK-1 is rate limiting enzyme for glycolysis
Hormone regulation of PFK-1
fructose 2,6 bisphosphate(PFK2) (allosteric activator)stimulates PFK-1 activity
-is regulated by dec camp levels & dec PKA acticity
Negative regulation of PFK1
bld glucose levels & PH are low
glucagon +ATP=cAMP production which makes PKA & stops PFK2
-Fructose 2,6 bisphos is phosphyrlated
-F1,6 bisphos is stimulated & liver stops using & starts gluconeogenesis
PFK1 is inhibited by dec PH,citrate&glucogon