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144 Cards in this Set

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What are the 2 foreign ruled nations in Latin America?
French Guiana & Falkland Islands
What is La Cordillera?
mounains that run the length of Latin America
What is the Ring of Fire?
Western edge of the Andes Mountains that have frequent volcanoes and earthquakes
What is regionalism?
Divides ppl within a country or a region
What are the Pampas?
Grassy Plains stretching from Argentina to Uraguay
What are the 3 great rivers in Latin America?
The amazon, the orinoco, and the rio de la playa
What climate covers 3/4 of L.A
Tropical
What is a rain shadow?
when wind blows water from the ocean towards a body of water and is blocked by a mountain range where it dumps all of its water leaving the other side dry like a desert
What is Tierra Caliente?
"hot land" * ppl grow sugar cane and bananas
What is Tierra Templada?
"temperate land" 3,000 feet, * ppl grow coffee and tobbacco
What is Tierra Fria?
"cool land" 6,000 feet and above, * ppl grow wheat and potatoes
What are Mestizos?
people of mixed European and Native American heritage
What is Maize?
corn
How did people end up in Latin America?
Over the Alaskan land bridge and when ppl were brought over to colonize and be slaves
Where did the Mayans live?
on the Yucatan penninsula in present day Guatemala
What is Pok-a-tok?
a game similar to basketball that mayan nobles played which had religious meaning
What are the 2 foreign ruled nations in Latin America?
French Guiana & Falkland Islands
Where did the Aztecs live?
Central Plateau of Mexico
What is Tenochtitlan?
The capital of the Aztec empire built over a lake ( lake texcoco )
What was tribute and how was it paid?
a tax needed to be paid to the head of the city state or province usually made of maize or other materials such as jaguar skins and precious stones
What were chinampas?
reed rafts filled with dirt which were anchored to a lake bed and held and grew crops
Where did the Incas live?
Modern day Peru, Bolivia, and Chile
What does the word INCA mean?
children of the sun
What was gold to the Inca people?
the sweat of the gods
What was a chasqui?
message relay runner
What was Quipu?
form in writing in knotted string
What were conquistadors?
spanish conquerers who came to Latin America looking for gold
Who was Hernando Cortes?
Planned to conquer the Aztecs in 1519, most believed him to be the god Quetzelcoatl, no one wanted to fight him, Moctezuma was afraid of angering him, he conquered the Aztecs by using these factors and the European diseases
Who was Francisco Pizzaro?
Conquerer who took over the Inca empire and built the city of Cuzco
What happened on October 12, 1492
Columbus reaches the New World
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494?
it prevented a war between Spain and Portugal over latin america
What was the Line of Demarcation?
line that was drawn between Spanish land and Portuguese land
Who was Vasco Nunez de Balboa?
explored Panama in 1513, he discovered the South Sea ( Pacific )
Who was Magellan?
led an exploration around South America and around the world, he named the Pacific ocean and was the first European to sail around the world, died in the Philipines
Who was Pedro Cabral?
claimed Brazil for Portugal in 1500
What is a Viceroy?
official ruling in place of a king who carried out laws
What was the Council of Indies?
made laws for colonies and regulated trade, courts, and church
What were calbidos?
they counciled and goverened towns and the surrounding land ( usually wealthy landowners)
What is Mercantilism?
practice of selling goods
What is a Hacienda?
a plantation
What is the Ecomienda system?
it gave spanish settlers the right to demand taxes or labor from people living on the land
What are Donatarios?
land lord over a huge area who usually brought colonists over to settle on their land
What are penninsulares?
officials sent from spain who controlled political and economical life and looked down on the other classes
what are creoles?
American born descendants of spanish settlers who did not get appointed top jobs in the government or church
What were padrinos?
godparents ( job taken very seriously)
what were duenas?
chaperones that were used by upperclass women when they went out in public
What were peons?
people who were forced to work for someone to pay off a debt
What was a maroon colony?
colony formed by runaway slaves and hid ... they formed secret communities
Who was Tupac Amaru?
led a revolt against the spanish in 1780 to call for the end of slavery
Who was Toussaint L'Ourverture?
leader of the Hatian rebels and a self-educated former slave, and in 1800 he and his rebels had driven out all foreign powers out of Haiti
In what year did Haiti declare Independence?
1804
Who was Simon Bolivar?
"the liberator" a wealthy creole in Europe who in 1807 joined the revolutionaries in attempt to end spanish rule... he liberated venezuela, columbia, peru, and ecuador
Who was Jose de San Martin?
Helped Argentina and Chile win independence and helped Bolivar with Peru and Ecuador
Who was Father Miguel Hidalgo?
A priest who lived in mexico and lost the support of wealthy creoles
Who was Jose Morelos?
organized the rebel army in mexico , mestizo priest,and in 1815 he was executed
Who was Augustin de Iturbide?
creole army officer who took over leading the rebel army who declared Mexico's independence in 1821 naming himslef emperor
Who was Pedro?
King John 6ths son who declared Brazil Independent and appointed himself king
What were caudillos?
military leaders who seized power and rulednas a dictator before being overthrown by another caudillo
How many times Did Jose de Santa Anna sieze power in Mexico
6
What were Oligarchies?
a small elite that was a ruling power ( wealthy landowners)
What was the difference between conservatives and liberals?
conservatives wanted to keep old social order and power of the catholic church snf liberals wanted to limit the power of the church and reduce church landholdings
Who was Maximillian?
ruled as emperor of Mexico for 3 years before being thrown out by americans. he was sent by the French to govern mexico because they did not pay their debts to France
Who did the middle class side with in economy?
the upper class because they wanted a chance to move up
who did urban workers ally with?
the rural poor
who were leftists?
people who supported radical change, socialism, redistribution of land, nationalization of industries, improvements on the working class living conditions,**** supported by urban workers, peasants, students, and intellectuals
what is a coup d'etat?
revolt of the military against the government
Who ruled the country of El Salvador?
14 families
Who is Fidel Castro?
a young lawyer who led the guerilla struggle in the 1950s who in 1959 gained power in Cuba and declared a Marxist state and one party rule
What is an Embargo?
complete halt of trade
Who did Cuba turn to after the US put an embargo on them?
the Soviet Union
Who were the Sandanistas
leftists in Nicaragua who overthrew the government
Who was Daniel Ortega?
leader of the Sandanistas and current president of Nicaragua
Who were the Contras?
people who opposed the Sandanistas ( backed by the US )
Who was Violetta Chimorro?
elected president of Nicaragua in 1990 and gave up her power to the winner of the democratic election
Who was Salvador Allende?
president of Chile in 1969 who increased land reform but in 1973 was killed by a coup d'etat
Who was Agusto Pinochet?
overthrew Allende and became president in 1973, he ended freedom of speech and was later arrested for the torture, arrest and murder of innocent citizens, he died in 2006
What happened during the debt crisis?
in the 1980s interest rates went up and they borrowed heavily for industry and they had to spend almost 1/3 of earnings on interest payments
Who had the most power in society in Latin America early on?
land owning families and rich industrialists
Who is Fidel Castro?
lawyer who gained power in cuba in 1959, he later declared a Marxist State, one party rule, and declared cuba a socialist nation
what is an embargo?
complete halt of trade
Who was Anastasio Somoza?
Dictator in Nicaragua who was overthrown by rebels in 1979
Who were the Sandanistas?
leftist rebels who overthrew the government
Who led the Sandanistas and is the current president of Nicaragua?
Daniel Ortega
Who were the contras?
U.S. supported people who were against the Sandanistas
Who is Violetta Chimorro?
elected president of Nicaragua in 1990 by the free elections held by the sandanistas. She also gave up power to the winner of the democratic elections
Who is Salvador Allende?
president of Chile in 1969 who was killed by a coup d'etat in 1973
Who was Agusto Pinochet?
a general who overthrew Allende in the coup d'etat who became the leader of chile . He was accused and arrested for humans rights crimes and died in 2006
What happened during the debt crisis?
Interest rates were increased and latin america borrowed heavily for industry, they had to lower tarrifs, encourage foreign investment,sell state owned buisnesses, and reduce govt spending
What does villas miseries mean?
city of miseries in columbia
What does pueblos jovenas mean?
young towns in Peru
What does favelas mean?
shanty towns in Brazil
What are tenant farmers?
people who work on large estates as farmers or servants
What does machismo mean?
male domination of family life
what is a padrino?
godfather (padrinos- plural= godparents)
What is a madrino?
godmother
What percent of people in L.A are catholic
90%
Who ordered the clergy to stop being political leaders?
Pope John Paul 2
What is El Norte?
The US
How was Mexico named
from the Aztec God Mexitli
Who is Porfirio Diaz?
Dictator in Mexico from 1876-1911 who called for order and progress and had a secret police force called the rurales
What is the PRI?
Institutional revolutionary party, dominated govt from 1929 to 2000 when the PAN party took over
What is the PAN?
National Action Party
Who is Vincente Fox Quesada?
Elected president in 2000 from the PAN party and created the ZNLA
What is the ZNLA?
Zapatista National Liberation Army- called for greater rights for native american ppl
who is the current president of Mexico?
Felipe Calderon
What type of economy does Mexico have?
mixed
what are ejidos?
agricultural communities
What is free trade?
trade with no restrictions
What is the NAFTA?
North American Free trade agreement between canada, us and mexico
What are malquildoras?
foreign owned plants that local workers assemble parts in to finish goods
What are Pampas?
grasslands
What are estancias?
huge cattle ranches
Who is Juan Peron?
president of Argentina in 1946
Who is Eva Peron?
Juan peron's rags to riches wife who helped women gain the right to vote and did other things for the economy
Who is Juan Peron's new wife when Eva dies?
Isabel Peron
What does Isabel Peron accomplish?
The first woman president in the americas
What was the dirty war?
when the army seized power in argentina and 30,000 people went missing and were killed
What happened in 1982 in the Falkland Islands?
Argentina tried to invade the British ruled Falkland islands for nationalism but it backfired and the British won which caused the military to lose support
What is inflation?
period of sharp increases in prices
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
stated that all american continents are no longer suject to colonization by european countries
What happened during the Mexican war?
In 1845 the US annexed Texas, In 1846 mexico and the US fought, and in 1848 mexico lost half its territory
What was the Spanish American War?
Cuba was fighting for independence from spain and in 1898 the US joins to help Cuba
What is the Platt Amendment?
States that in Cuba's new constitution they must put that the US has the right to intervene in Cuban affairs
What did the US gain from the Spanish American War?
Puerto Rico and the Phillipines
Who started the building of the Panama Canal?
Teddy Roosevelt
When was the US granted the "canal zone"?
in 1903
What is the good neighbor policy?
states that no state has the right to intervene with the internal or external affairs of another state
What was Alliance for Progress?
JFK's slogan for cold war politics
What happened at the Bay of Pigs invasion?
The US tries to overthrow Castro by sending in secretly trained Cuban exiles to go in and invade but Castro finds out and the plan backfires
What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?
In October of 1962, the soviets built missile bases in cuba, the US finds out and puts a blockade on cuba.. the soviets backed down but in 1977 there were still limited diplomatic relations
Who is the leader of El Salvador
Alfredo Christiani
What is Puerto Rico?
self governing common wealth of the US with its own constitution
Who was Luis Munon Marin?
first elected governor of Puerto Rico
What was operation boot strap?
when tax savings were made to build factories
What did the Andean Pact do?
lower tarrifs
What is the OAS and when was it formed?
The Organization of American States and it was formed in 1948
What is default?
to stop paying loans
What was Debt for Nature?
foreign countries agreed to lower or cancel debt if conservation was taken more seriously such as the amazon rain forrest
What was the Drug trade fueled by?
Demand for drugs in the US and Europe
When was the Medillin Drug Cartel Powerful?
1980s
Who was Pablo Escobar?
"narco-terrorist" who killed thousands of people ( leader of medillin drug cartel"
Who was President of Panama during the Drug War?
Manuel Noriega
Who is Hugo Chavez?
President of Venezuela since 1998, pushes Bolivarianism and passed the enabling act
What was the Enabling Act?
allows rule by decree in Venezuela ( Chavez )