Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
neolithic period
the new stone age
people learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals
what was the old stone age called
paleolithic age
before there were records
neolithic revolution
agricultural revolution-the shift from food-gathering to food-producing culture
what did people do before the neolithic revolution?
hunting and gathering
what might have been some reaosns for the agricultural revolution?
1. change in climate-rising temps for longer growing seasons and lrider land for cultivating wild grasses
a rich supply in grain could have produced a small population boom
as populations grew, hunter-gathers felt pressure to find new food sources, like farming-a steady source of food
when did prehistoric time end in the Middle East?
in Sumeria-5,000 BC
where was the first writing system?
what archeological site influenced our knowledge of prehistoric village life?
catal huyuk
5 characteristics of a civilization
1)advanced CITIES 2) specialized workers 3) complex institutions 4) record keeping 5) advanced technology
derivation of civilization
derives from teh word city-cities were the virthplace of the first civilizations
remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects that might hint at how people dressed, what work they did, or how theyworshipped
early human accomplishments last
farming ended paleolithic
invention of tools, mastery over fire, and the development of lanuage
early human accomplishments last
tools: 1. cooper 2. bronze 3. iron
neolithic: polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, raise animals
what people were the first toolmakeers?
homo habilis
what people were the first to use fire?
homo erectus "upright man"
what does the shanidar cave site teach us about neanderthals?
that they developed religious beliefs and performed rituals
what were the purpose of pyramids?
afterlife for pharaoh-tombs
who was divine according to egyptian theocracy?
what was the formal egyptian writing system?
what was the importance of the nile for transporation?
it was a reliable source of transportation between upper and lower egypt. the nile flows north so northbound boats could drigt with the current. the ease of contact made possible by this watery highway helped unify egypt's villages and promote trade.
what part of the nile did the egyptians know and why?
the lower part-the trade part
the upper part was filled with cataracts (rocky waterfals)
define theocracy
government where ruler is a divine figure or a government based on religion
where was the first example of feudalism?
china-zhou dynasty
identify sargon of Akkrad
conqueror who defeated city-states of sumer and created the worlds first empire
reason for limited knowledge about indus valley civilization
no translators key for records
what was the natural barrier separating india and china
himalayan mountains
composition of the Shang ruling class
1) King 2) Warriors and nobles


what is the covenant?
mutual promise between god and the founder of the Hebrew people, abraham. Abraham promised to obey God and God promised to protect abraham and his descendents
who allowed the temple of jerusalem to be rebuilt?
persian king cyrus
common belief of hindiusm and buddhism
1) reincarnation 2) ahimsa
accomplishments of solomon
built a trading empire
beautified the capital city of jerusalem
built the great temple
who descended from indo-europeans?
hitties, aryans, greeks, balts, maccedonians, italics, greeks
what caused the spread of buddhism?
1. most effective=trade
2. missionaries
describe the torah
5 first books of the hewbrew bible that desribe most of what we know about the early history of the hebrews. hebrews consider them the most sacred writings in their tradition
describe the indian caste system
1. brahmins=priests
2. shatria=warriors
3. vaisya=merchants and artisans
4. sudrah=laborers and farmers

outside caste system:
cultural diffusion between hittites and babylonians
-hitties adopted akkadian language of the babylonians they conquered
-borrowed idea about literature, ar, politics, and law from the mesopotamian peoples they encountered
-their legal code was similar to hammarabis
-blended their culture w/ the more advanced babylonian culture
-got chariot from babylonians
who expelled the hebrews from judah in the first diaspora?
the assyrians
relationship between egypt and nubia during the new kingdom period
pharaohs forecefully imposed egyptian rule on nubia's next great kingdom, Kush
egyptian governors, priests, soldiers, and artisits strongly infleunced the nubians
kushite princes went to egypt and learend the egyptian language and worshiped egyptian gods
adopted customs and clothing styles of egyptian upper class
kushite nobles returned home w/ royal rituals and hieroglyphics
built pyramids based on hyptians
when kush regained independence it still guarded egypts values and conquered egypt and its libyan rulers
response of kush to assyrian conquest of egypt
they fought bravely, bc they felt they were guardians of egyptian values. but were forced to retreat south up the nile by the assyrians. there, they experienced the wealth and golden age in Meroe
why was darius an effective ruler?
divided the empire into 20 provinces
installed a governor called satraps to each
built royal road
established a bureucracy
a trained civil service, or those who run the government
what was the purpose of confucius stressing the five relationships?
to establish ordey and harmony in government
what were the five relationshisp
1) ruler and subject
2) father and son
3) husband and wife
4) older brother and younger brother
5) friend and friend
what was essential to the creation of the new kingdom in egypt?
the pharoahs sought to strengthen egypt by building an empire
how was china unified?
Leader Shi Huangdi during the qin dynasty
built a highway network
set uniform standards of writing, law, currency, and weights and measures
carved china into 36 administrative districts w/ qin officials to control them
what empire first developed a specicialed army?
the assyrians
why is legalism important?
legalists ideas gained favor by qin dynasty, which put down oppositions at home and unified china
legalists believed that a highly effieicent and powerful government was the key to restoring order. they believed the government should use laww to end civil disorder and restore harmony
2 founders of legalism
hanfeizi and li si
what does acropolis mean?
a fortified hilltop on which male citizens in greece gathered to conduct business
who was solon?
solon was a trusted stateman who get power of athens to reform the law.
what didsolon do for athens that was good?
outlawed debt slavery
allowed all citizens to participate and debate policies in the athenian assembly
introduced the legal concept that any citizens could bring charges against wrongdoers
his economic reforms benefited many
the republic
the most famous work of plato, a student of the critic of sohpists, socrates. in it, plato set forth his vision of a perfectly governed society. it was not a democracy. in his ideal society, all citizens would fall naturally into 3 group: farmers and artisans, warriors, and the ruling class. the smartest person would be king
who conquered greece after the peloponnesian war?
philip II of maccedonia
what city became the center of learning during the hellenistic period?
who created the first written law code in athens?
greek lawmaker draco
what did the first legal code deal with?
mainly with contracts and property ownership
included unfair practices such as debt slavery, in which small farmers worked as slaves to repay their debts
what was a helot?
peasants forced to stay on the land they worked. each year, the spartans demanded half of the helots yearly crop.
who became helots and when?
messenians whhen sparta conquered them
chronological order of the people who dominated greece
1. mycenneans
2. dorians
3. city-states
4. maccedonians
5. antiginee
writers of greek tragedies
euripedes, sophocles, aeschylus
chronological order of greek wars
1. trojan
2. persian
3. peloponnesian
4. alexanders conquest-battles
trojan war between..
mycenaean kings and troy
legend: troojan youth kidnapped helen, wife of greek king
who won
idk, but not long after the mycenaean civilization collasped
persian war..between who?
greece and persian empire?
greeks had long been settled in anatolia and persians conquered the area
who won?
pelopennesian war..between who?
sparta and athens
bc they thought war was inevitable.tension
who won?
all of the following were activites for the paleolithic nomads except:
1. digging up plants
2. kaing and repairing tools
3. protecting flocks and herds
4. finding secure places to rest
who were the first early people to be skeletally identical to modern humans?
a peoples way of life is called that peoples
the species that includes modern humans is known as
homo sapiens
the main result of the domestication of animals was that humans
had a ready supply of meat and animal products
slash-and-burn farming refers to
harvesting farmed crops
what helped free people to develop skills other than farming?
center of the religious life of the city
why were cities important in the dvelopement of a civilization?
they were the birthplace of the first civilization
one of the five characteristics of a civilization is advanced cities
part of the area between th epersian gulf and the mediterranean sea that differs from the surrounding territory in the richness of its land
fertile crescent
soil deposited by flood waters and left when they recede
process that diverts water from a natural body for agricultural purposes
what was the site of the first civilization?
this is a legendary king of mesopotamia whose adventures are dtailed in one of the worlds earliest works of literature
what was hammarabis code?
code of eye for an eye
why was it unusual for its time?
it punshed rich and poor, men and women
the cataracts along the nile are most similar to
ancient egypt wa protected by natural barriers formed by
the legendary figure menes is famous for being
the first ruler of ancient egypt
what did egyptians develop and how did it tie to their practical needs?
counting system to collect taxes
geometry for farming
calendar for floods
measurements for contruction of pyramids
ruins of settlements in the indus valley show that buildings were constructed of
over-baked bricks
land mass that contains india, pakistan, bangladesh, and nepal is referred to as a
what term is sometimes used to refer to the indus vallley civilzation
harrapan civilzation
what river floods unpredictably and sometimes changes its course
Indus river
seasonal winds
chinas first cities rose along hte
Huang He river
chinas supreme god during the first several yrs of its civilization was
shang di
how did the zhou oveerthrow the shang dynasty
they claimed their actions were justified by heavenly powers
mandate of heaven
if something bad happened in chinese gov't, someone else cud take ovrf
what ancient city was founded on the banks of the euphrates river?
what ancient village, located in what is now turkey, is known for its obsidian products and colorful wall paintings/?
catal huyuk
what early species of hominids was the first to migrate, to use tools, to use fire, and perhaps develop the beginnings of spoken language?
homo erectus
the disappearance of which early spcies of hominids still leaves archaologists baffled?
despite its severitly, it reinforced the idea that the government had a responsibility for what occured in society
hammurabis code
fortified areas in cities in the indus valley
what was the location of nebuchadnezzrrs hanging gardens?
which empire is known for its cruelty to conquered peoples in mesopotamia, syria, palestine, anatolia, and egypt
which group of nomads invaded egypt in chariots and ruled egypt for about 70 yrs?
which chinese philosophy stressed that social order, harmony, and good government could be restored by organizing society around the five basic relationships?
which empire was ruled by cyrus, who was famous for his kind treatment of the peoples he conquered?
which philosophy was qin ruler shi huandi following when he burned "useless" books, created forced labor, and murdered hundreds of scholars?
the indo-euopean people that migrated from the steps were mainly
buddhism spread across asia mostly as a result of
in buddhism, the releae from selfishness and pain that comes from complete understanding is known as
the social class system that came to be known as the caste system was established in india by
the most able seafarers of the early mediterranean were
hinduism and buddhism have the common belief in
1) mmany gods
2) the sacredness of all life
3) reincarnation?
the phoenicians contributed greatly to written communication by introducing the first use of
phoenetic symbols
the hitties were able to excel at war bc of their knowledge of