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90 Cards in this Set

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Who are the actors in world politics?
- States
- IGOs
- NGOs
- MNCs
What are IGOs?
Intergovernmental Organizations. Members are made up of states.
What are NGOs?
Nongovernmental Organizations. Members are made up of individuals with various interests/concerns.
What are MNCs?
Multinational Corporations.
Traditional approach
Focuses on individual countries using their power for their self-interest and competing against other countries in a largely anarchical international system.
Alternative approach
Global connectivity and cooperation
Intermestic
A term used to describe the merging of international and domestic concerns.
Realism
believe that the decisive dynamic among countries is a struggle for power in an effort by each to preserve or, preferably, improve its military security and economic welfare in competition with other countries. Selfishness, anarchy, zero - sum game.
Zero - sum game
A gain for one country is an inevitable loss for another.
Liberalism
contends that people and the countries that represent them are capable of finding mutual interests and cooperating to achieve them, at least in part by working through international organizations and according to international law.
Constructivism
views the course of international relations as an interactive process in which the ideas of and communications among agents (or actors: individuals, groups, and social structures, including states) serve to create structures (treaties, laws, international organizations, and other aspects of the international system). We are what we make ourselves.
The State
the totality of a country’s governmental institutions and officials, together with the laws and procedures that structure their activities.
Failed state (or weak state)
has little or no ability to govern its entire territory. Can be caused by crisis of legitimacy.
3 characteristics of a State
- Legitimacy
- Sovereignty
- Autonomy
Sovereignty
means the exclusive legal authority of a government over its population and territory, INDEPENDENT of external authorities. IGOs threaten states sovereignty.
Legitimacy
Validity of the state in the eyes of the people. The right to rule.
Autonomy
refers to the relative independence of state authorities from the population. If the state enjoys a high degree of autonomy, then state officials are quite free to do what they please when it comes to governing the populace.
Anarchy
no central authority
Types of state institutions
- The executive
- The legislative
- The judicial
- Bureaucracy
- Military
The executive branch
Head of State vs. Head of Government.
Head of State
a ceremonial position that carries little or no real decision-making power
Constitutional monarchy (or limited monarchy)
a regime in which the monarch is head of state, but real decision-making power is in the hands of other institutional authorities such as legislators, the prime minister, and other officials who answer to them.
Head of Government
usually the country’s chief political officer and is responsible for presenting and conducting its principal policies.
Executive branch in Britain
the head of state is the monarch; the head of government is the prime minister.
Executive branch in Japan
the head of state is the emperor; the head of government is the prime minister.
Executive branch in Germany
the head of state is the president; the head of government is the chancellor.
Executive branch in the US
head of state and head of government is the president.
Legislative branch
Their chief functions, especially in democracies, are to make laws (sometimes in conjunction with the executive branch) and to represent the people in the lawmaking process.
Parliamentary System
the national legislature actually elects (or approves) the head of government and holds that person, along with the entire cabinet, continuously accountable for their actions.
Unicameral
Legislature composed of ONE parliamentary house
Bicameral
Legislature composed of TWO houses, usually a lower house (House of rep) and an upper house (senate).
Judicial Branch
A state's court/legal system
Judicial review
the right to invalidate laws made by the legislature and executive bodies as unconstitutional.
The Bureaucracy (or civil service)
Not partisan and efficient. Efficiency separates strong from weak states. Well-developed network of state organs charged with advising political decision makers about different policy options and implementing policies once they have been decided upon.
coup d’état
A forceful take over of state power by the military.
Martial Law
substitutes various military rules of justice for civil law. It typically suspends the presumption of innocence, the right to protection against arbitrary search and arrest, and other civil rights.
National Identity
it refers to a people’s conscious belief that they collectively constitute a nation. Emotional.
Ethnicity
a form of group identification that is usually rooted in a common biological ancestry—or, more precisely, in a people’s belief in such a common ancestry.
Nationalism
a consciously formulated set of political ideas emphasizing the distinctiveness and unity of one’s nation, specifying common interests, and prescribing goals for action. Political.
Xenophobia
distrust and hatred of foreigners.
National Identity; Liberal view
everyone within shared boarders
National Identity; Counter View
shared heritage, language, faith, ancestry
Civic Community
people feel that they constitute a nation on the basis of certain shared principles or ideals or community goals, however broadly they may be defined
Citizenship
national identity as members of a state
Language
national identity that results from shared patterns of social communication
Positives of Nationalism
- Patriotism
- Promote democracy
- Discourages imperialism
- Allows for economic development
- Allows for diversity and experimentation
Negatives of Nationalism
- Reluctance to help others
- Exclusionism
- Exceptionalism
- Xenophobia
- Cultural discrimination/oppression
- Imperialism
Nation Building
is the process of developing a widely shared national identity among a country’s population and an effective, legitimate state.
Self - Determination
The right to self Govern. (Think of Africa and colonialism).
Goals:
- Untangle the groups
- Break up of established states
- Microstates
- International instability
Nation State
sovereign state consisting of one “nation” within internationally recognized boundaries. Synonym for a state or country.
Supranationalism
efforts on the part of two or more countries to limit their sovereignty by establishing decision-making structures over and above their national governments. In the case of the EU, these supranational bodies have the authority to make laws that are binding on the member states.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended the 30 years war. Allowed countries to become independent and sovereign.
Myth/Reality of nation - states
- one state, one nation
- one state, multiple nations (irredentism)
- one nation, multiple states
- one nation, no state (kurds)
- multiple nations, multiple states
Irredentism
any position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity or prior historical possession, actual or alleged.
How many IGOs are there?
nearly 300
Functionalism
“bottom-up,” evolutionary approach that begins with limited, pragmatic cooperation on narrow, nonpolitical issues.
Neofunctionalism
Top - Down approach. if you create IGOs and give them the resources and the authority they need to address central global problems, then in time countries and their people will learn to trust and govern through these IGOs and possibly even shift their primary sense of political
Hague System
Welfare
Treaty of Versailles
Peace
League of Nations
Prevent war. FAILED.
United Nations
Security
IGOs provide a platform and framework for:
- Cooperation
- Reducing transaction costs (NAFTA)
- Providing information
- Reducing suspicion/building trust
6 Reasons for IGO growth
1.increased international contact
2.increased global interdependence
3.expansion of transnational problems
4.failure of current state – centered systems to provide security
5.efforts of small states to gain strength through joint action
6.success of pats IGOs
Roles of IGOs
- Interactive arena
Explore International Interests
- Centers for cooperation
Regime theory
Laws
- Independent int’l actor
- Supranational organization
International Regime
This can develop into complex forms of interdependence int’l organizations, laws/norms, treaties and other regime contributors.
Arguments for expanding supranational authority
- Major world problems
- Inability of national governments to solve problems
Arguments AGAINST expanding supranational authority
- Nationalism too strong
- Political leaders would not give up power
- The concentration of power
- Doubts about whether such a structure could solve the problems
- Diminishing of cultural diversity and political experimentation
- Worries about preserving democracy
Regional governments
An alternative to expanding supranational authority
Maastricht Treaty
Changed European Economic Community (EEC) to European Union (EU). Political Intigration.
How many members in EU?
27
Copenhagen Criteria
- Political Condition
-----Stable state institutions guaranteeing democracy, rule of law, HR, respect for minorities.
- Economic Criterion
-----Functioning markets
- Ability to cooperate
Who can join EU?
- Any European country
- Must meet Copenhagen Criteria
EU Agenda
Reducing poverty with a focus on :
- Human Rights and good governance
- Human Development
- Coordinated EU Action
- Improved coherence of EU policies
When was the UN founded?
1945
Who can join the UN?
Any state
United nations
Promotes peace and security
UN General Assembly
192 mems. ea. with 1 vote.
UN Security Council
15 members.: 5 are permanent & 10 serving 2 year terms.
UN Secretariat
- Secretary General with 5 year term
- Current SC is South Korean Ban Ki-moon (2007-2012)
UN International Court Justices
15 judges serving 9 yr terms.
Economic and Social Council
54 members./3 year
UN Security Council Veto Debate
Each member's vote and veto holds the same weight, regardless of country population/economic size.
What sparks the Rwandan Genocide?
- Burundi Hutu president killed in Oct. 1993.
- April 6, 1994 at 8:30 PM:
the president of Rwanda and Burundi killed when plane is shot down
Terrorism
(1) violence; (2) carried out by individuals, nongovernmental organizations, or covert government agents or units; that (3) specifically targets civilians; (4) uses clandestine attack methods, such as car bombs and hijacked airliners; and (5) attempts to influence politics.
Hard Power
a term describing political power obtained from the use of military and/or economic coercion to influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies.
Soft Power
the ability to obtain what one wants through co-option and attraction.
Weapons of Mass Desctruction
- Biological
- Chemical
- Nuclear
Types of Terrorism
- Conventional weapons
- Chemical and Biological
- Radiological
Nuclear Non - Proliferation Treaty
- non-proliferation,
- disarmament, and
- the right to peacefully use nuclear technology.
Not signed NPT:
India, Pakistan & Israel