Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
British PM during WWII, "Nothing to Offer but Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat"..Led Britain during her darkest hour..during the Nazi onslaught of the battle for Britain.
Father of communism, this German stressed a classless society and dictatorship of the proletariat.
Queen of Spain who listened to Columbus and gave him 3 ships...Spanish Empire in the New World.. Colombian exchange.
Erich Remarque
Famous writer who wrote "All Quiet On The Western Front" dealing with Germany during World War I. The Nazis persecuted him causing this author to seek refuge in the U.S.
Joan of Arc
Peasant girl who saved France in the 100 Years' War. She was captured and burned by the British as a witch.
Greek philosopher, wrote The Republic, dealing with his version of an ideal government, where an aristocracy not a democracy would be put into practice. The philosophers would rule a society where private land was abolished.
German leader WWII, Fuhrer, brown shirts, fascism, genocide, 6 million Jews, Third Reich, wrote "Mein Kampf."
Boris Yeltsin
Late 1990's Russian leader, poor health, civil wars, and the transition to a market economy have caused this leader many problems.
Russian communist who promised his people "peace, bread, and land" if they backed his revolution during World War I.
Great Muslim leader who recaptured Jerusalem from the Christians Pilgrims
A Frank, a giant of a man, stressed education of the clergy, spread Christianity,, "Holy Barbarian" crowned by the pope...used his Missi Dominici
Urban II
Pope who urged West European Christians to stop fighting among themselves and fight to take over the Holy Land from the Muslims in a Holy War or Crusade
Richard the Lion Hearted
English king who fought in the Crusades, cut a deal with Saladin to allow Christians access to Middle East holy places. His brother was the Evil Prince John.
Vaclav Havel
A Czech playwright and human rights advocate elected president of a non-communist government with the decline of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe.
Helped develop communism with Marx, co-authored such works as the Communist Manifesto.
Alexander The Great
Famous Macedonian who conquered most of his known world, man who spread Greek culture and stressed "One World."
U.S. president during WWII, great depression, helped defeat Hitler...Teheran, Yalta Conferences..Foundation for United Nations Post WWII.
Italian WWII leader, father of fascism, Il Duce, wanted Italy to return to the once greatness of Rome.
Lech Walesa
Polish worker who helped found "solidarity" a trade union in Poland. Jailed by the communist for his actions..1990 elected as president of a free non-communist nation.
Considered to be one of the world's greatest Renaissance writers, probed historical as well as the human character...Julius Caesar and Romeo and Juliet.
Spanish Renaissance writer.."Don Quixote"...which poked fun at the Medieval Period of history
Italian born wrote in the Vernacular.."Divine Comedy", about an imaginary trip through hell, purgatory, and heaven
German born inventor of the movable type printing press that revolutionized the way information was processed..spread ideas faster and made the printed word more available to people.
Italian who wrote The Prince..."The End Justifies The Means" taught leaders how to retain power by using unscrupulous means.
Flemish cartographer who dealt in maps. Published the first modern Atlas 1570.
Italian vernacular writer who wrote "Decameron" which put down life during the Middle Ages.
Nicknamed the Renaissance man for his versatility, a painter, sculptor, architect, carved the famous...David Statues, painted the Sistene Chapel.
Nicknamed The Renaissance Man for his versatility, a painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, scientist, painted the Last Supper and the Mona Lisa.
Explorer who was killed in the Phillipines but his crew went on to be the first individuals to circumnavigate the globe.
Renaissance gienius, sculptor, painter, poet, architect, carved the famous...David Statues, painted the Sistene Chapel.
Nicknamed the brains behind Italian unification, practiced realpolitik in the Crimean War to help push his cause with the super powers of the day.
Proclaimed a herectic by the church for confirming the Copernican Theory.
Italian who sailed for the Spanish looking for shorter route to the Indies...cultural diffusion between the Old World and New..Spanish Empire and decline of Indians
Greek philosopher, teacher, believed in reason or logic, taught "------" The Great---- to appreciate Greek culture.
Iron chancellor of Germany, unified Germany with "blood and iron"..3 wars of at realpolitik.
M. Luther
Catholic priest who attacked church abuses...95 Theses, denounce indulgences and the supremacy of the pope, split the Catholic Church with the development of protestantism.
J. Calvin
Protestant leader who believed in predestination, frowned on dancing and card playing..puritans, and Huguenots.
Michael Sadler
British member of parliament during the Industrial Revolution who was the chairman of a parliamentary committee investigating the abuses of child labor.
Carl Schultz
German liberal and nationalist who fought in the revolutions of 1848. With the failure of the mid-century revolutions, he emigrated to the U.S.
French philosopher.. "I think therefore I am"..reason to find the truth. He also excelled in math and science.
Russian leader who stressed Russification" of all ethnic groups, eliminated all opposition such as well to do Kulaks, ended the Nepman Program..led the Soviet Union during WWII.
Labeled the soul or heart of Italian unification, established young Italy..Nationalist Movement.
Elizabeth I
Daughter of Henry VIII preserved protestantism in England,competed in a Man's World"..knew how to cooperate with parliament, stood against Catholic Spain.. stressed nationalism.
Soviet leader who helped end the cold war and cause of the decline of communism world wide...famous for glastnost, openness..freedom and perestrokia or move in the direction of capitlism.
Charles Dickens
British realist writer who exposed the evils of the Industrial Revolution with such works as David Copperfield and Oliver Twist.
Inventor of calculus, developed the concept of the law of gravity..he saw the universe as a huge, well regulated machine that worked according to the laws of nature.
James I
Stuart dynasty established in Eengland, did not get along with parliament, great believer in absolutism.."most learned fool in christendom"
Henry VIII
English king who wanted to get rid of his wife. Established the Church of England to do so at the expense of the Catholic land and courts taken over.
Soviet leader during the 1960's stressed a policy of "peaceful coexistence" with the west involved with Cuban Missile Crisis and Berlin Wall.
Developed the concept that the sun was the center of our universe. Helio-centric theory..contradicting the geocentric theory of ptolemy.
Puritan leader fought with the roundheads and defeated the king's cavaliers..lord protector of England...strong government based on puritan beliefs.
Leading French literary figure penned An Open Letter "J" "Accuse" which charged the French army with framing an army officer named Dreyfus because he was Jewish...anti semitism.
Founded the Jesuit Order to help regain lost areas to the Protestant Reformation...counter-reformation... became missionaries to far away lands.
Son of the French revolution, unable to defeat Britain, and Russia was his undoing, codified law, metric system, constitutions established in conquered regions..defeated at Waterloo.
Randolf Hoess
Commandant of Auschwitz, his name has come to symbolize humanity's descent into evil. He was tried at Nuremburg 1946 as a war criminal.
Defended absolutism with his work "The Leviathan"..people needed a strong ruler because they were incapable of ruling themselves and relinquished their rights to a king.
French philosopher "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it" concept of freedom of speech.
Phillip II
Catholic King of Spain, attempted to defeat protestant England with his famous Armada and depose Elizabeth I...safeguard Spanish New World Trade and colonies.
A leading 17th century French bishop who wrote political tracks supporting absolutism and divine right monarchy.
Louis XIV
French king who represented the high point of absolutism..Versilles Palace, Sun King, "I Am The State"..constant warfare cused massive debt for the French government.
Ivan The Terrible
Russian King who took the title Czar for the first time, ruled his nation with terrible cruelty..iron fist.
John Locke
Believed people had natural, liberty, and property..that power came from the people who entered into a social contract with the ruler and if denied these rights they could revolt..glorious revolution, American Revolution.
Peter The Great
Giant Russian Czar, diffused western ideas into his nation, established a window (sea port) on the Baltic to increase Russia's power.
Greek philosopher who stressed questioning to arrive at the truth, sentenced to death in time of war for corrupting the young minds of Athens.
Greek leader famous for his funeral oration (speech) praising Athenian democracy and citizen participation in government.
Catherine the Great
Czarina of Russia who sought seaports or windows in the Black Sea region. Enlightened despot allowed religious toleration, and limited torture.
John Hersey
Author of the book "Hiroshima" vivid accounts and details of the atomic attack by the U.S. on this Japanese city.
Thomas Mann
Notable German author "Death in Venice"...married a Jewish woman and was critical of the Nazi government...eventually settled in the U.S.
Developed the concept of 3 branches of government to prevent tyranny..checks and balances.
Elie Wiesel
Holocaust survivor, Nobel Peace prize winner 1986, lived in the death camps.. first book "Night" recounts horrors of experiences at the hands of the Nazis.
Individual who believed in the general will, or will of the majority, social contract, rights for children and the mentally ill.
H. Truman
U.S. president containment, NATO, a foreign policy doctrine with his name, Berlin Air-Lift and massive aid to help rebuild Europe post WWII.
W. Wilson
U.S. president during WWI, "war to end all wars"..14 points, Treaty of Versilles, establishment of the League of Nations.
Louis XVI
Bourbon monorch restored post Napoleon..granted limited suffrage, legal equality, and freedom of speech and press.
G. Marshall
Famous U.S. general during WWII, post WWII was put in charge of massive aid and relief for Europe...his nme is given to this ...plan.
French revolutionary helped create the reign of terror during the French Revolution..guillotine was used to stamp out all opposition.
Maria Theresa
Austrian queen identified with the pragmatic sanction, considered and enlightened serfdom.
Thomas Paine
U.S. patriot author of "Common Sense"..a popular pamphlet that argued for independence from a logical point of view.
Era is named for this Austrian individual, a reactionary involved with congress of Vienna, legitimacy, compensation, quadruple aliance, concert of Europe, helped crush liberal and nationalistic revolutions post Napoleon.
Edmund Burke
British politician believed in conservative ideas post Napoleon, condemned the ideas of the French Revolution as being extremist.
A. Smith
Physiocrate or economist wrote The Wealth of Nations..stressed a policy of Laissez-Faire or government hands off the economy.. ..allowed to operate according to the law of supply and demand.
Robert Owen
Utopian socialist, a wealthy British cotton manufacturer created a model industrial community where workers were treated fairly.
Thomas Malthus
Economist that prdicted gloom and doom for the world with his "Principle of Population." He pointed out that world population would increase faster than food production...only solution was to decrease population.