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41 Cards in this Set

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The Enlightenment
a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems.
Thomas Hobbes
a political thinker during the Enlightenment who believed humans were naturally selfish and wicked.
Leviathon
a book written by Thomas Hobbes, about how people, who were naturally selfish and wicked, needed governments to keep order.
Social contract
the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.
John Locke
a philosophe who believed people could learn from experience and improve themselves.
Philosophes
social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment
Voltaire
really named Francois Marie Arouet, he published many books and essays on philosophy and drama. He fought for freedom of speech, freedom of religious belief, tolerance and reason.
Montesquieu
an influential French writer who devoted himself to the study of political liberty.
Rousseau
a philosophe who was passionately committed to individual freedom, and wrote the book The Social Contract.
On the Spirit of Laws
written by Montesquieu, this book proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government.
The Social Contract
A book written by Rousseau that said a social contract was an agreement among free individuals to create a society and a government.
Bonesana Beccaria
an Italian philosphe who believed that laws existed to preserve social order.
Mary Wollstonecraft
a persuasive writer who published the essay A Serious Proposal to the Ladies where she argued that women, like men, need education to become virtuous and useful.
A Vindication of the Rights of Women
written by Mary Wollstonecraft, this book argued that women, like men, need education to become virtuous and useful.
Denis Diderot
a philosophe who created a large set of books with many articles and essays called Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
a large set of books to which many leading scholars of Europe contributed articles and essays created by Denis Diderot
Enlightened despots
18th century European monarchs who were inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects.
Catherine the Great
the ruler of Russia from 1762 to 1796 who sought to reform Russia, and expanded the empire.
Old Regime
the political and social system of France before the Revolution.
Three estates
large social classes, where the first estate consisted of the clergy, the second estate consisted of the rich nobles, and the third was made up of the bourgeoisie, tradespeople, peasants, apprentices, laborers and domestic servants.
Estates-general
an assembly of representatives from all three states.
Louis XVI
the king of France during the French Revolution who was a weak leader
Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI’s queen who became known as “Madame Deficit” because she spent money on things like jewels even though France was in big debt.
National Assembly
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
the pledge that the National Assembly made when they found themselves locked out of their meeting room, and they broke down the door of a tennis court declaring they would not leave until they had drawn up a new constitution.
Great Fear
a wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
a statement of revolutionary ideas that gave citizens the rights of equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.
Legislative Assembly
a French Congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war
Sans-culottes
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages.
Jacobins
of a radical political organization called the Jacobin Club who were involved in most of the government changes.
Guillotine
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution
Maximilien Robespierre
a Jacobin leader who gained power and ruled France during the Reign of Terror until he was guillotined
Reign of Terror
the period from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed.
Napoleon Bonaparte
was born in 1769 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica, and he became a hero of France, and eventually became the emperor of the French Empire.
Napoleonic Code
Napoleon’s system of laws that made freedom of speech and of the press restricted.
Battle of Trafalgar
the only major battle that Napoleon lost that ensured the supremecy of the British navy and forced him to give up his plans of invading Britain
Continental System
Napoleon’s policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain’s economy.
Peninsular War
a conflict lasting from 1808-1813 in which Spanish rebels with the aid of British forces fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain.
Scorched-earth policy
burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing for the enemy to eat.
Waterloo
a village in Belgium that Napoleon attacked, and was defeated which ended his last bid of power.
Hundred Days
the brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid of power, deposing the French king and again becoming emperor of France