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92 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
how much of earths land surface does africa occupy?
1/5
describe africas georgraphy
narrow coastlines
waterfallls and rapids
what is africas climat like?
most of it is tropics but has a large range--from steamy coastal plains to snow-capped mountain peaks
how much of africa do deserts make up?
40%
Sahara
largest desert in north africa
stretches from the atlantic ocean to the red sea
covers an area the size of the US
only part consists of sanddunes- the rest is mostly flat, gray wasteland of scattered rocks and gravel
kalahari
largest desert in south africa
how much area of africa do rainforests cover
5%
where are they located
streches across about half of the middle of africa
are the deserts habitable?
no
are the rainforests habitable?
they aer partly inhabitable
climate of rainforest
hot and humid and receives enormous amounts of rain
why are there few small plants in teh rain forest?
tall mahogany and teak trees block sunlight
what is the climate like on the northern coast and southern tip of africa?
welcoming climates
fertile soil
sunny hot and dry summers
wild winters
moderate rainfall
savannas
grassy plains that cover over 40% of continent
largest number of ppl live here
supports agriculture
what kind of weather does the savannas have?
dry seasons alternate w/ rainy reasons--2 each year
what are major crfops of the savannas
grains such as sorghum and millet, rice, wheat, and maize (corn)
Sahel
land at the southern edge of the Sahara Desert
each year the desert takes over more and more of teh Sahel
what does sahel mean in arabic and why
"coastline" maybe bc the Sahara seemed to them a vast ocean of sand
what were africas earliest ppl like?
they wre nomadic hunter-gatherers who romaed from place to place seeking sources of food
where did the first humans appear?
in the great rift valley
great rift valley
a deep fash in the earths crust that runs through the flooor of the red sea and across eartern africa
pastoralists
herders who learned to domesticate animals and raise them for foood
masai
group of tanzania and southern kenya who still measure their wealth by the size of their herds
when do experts believe agriculture proabbly began in africa?
10,000 BC
what happened to the sahara between 8000 and 4000 BC
the sahara received increased rainfall and turned into a savnna
what happened to it at 4000 bc
it gegan to dry up again
what did this ause?
to survive, many farmers moved east into nile valley and south into west africa.
what had the best africultural land?
the savannas
why did they form governments?
bc large and comple settlements of people required more organization and regulation than smaller communities
what kind of governments did they form
some villlages consisted of a village chieft and/or a council of the leaders of individual family groups
what common elements did the societies south of the sahara share?
importance of family-extended families
animism
griots and stories
extended family
primary group of parents, children,grandparents, cousins, aunts, and uncles
clan
a group that shared common ancestors
where africans monotheistic or polytheistiic
mono
animism
a relgiion in which psirits played an important role in regulating daily life. animists believe that these spirits are present in animals, plants, and other natural forces, and also take the form of the souls of their dead ancestors
griots
storytellers who kept history alive by passing it from parent to child
where do archaeologists believe people moved from when they came to west africa and why?
from the north as desertification forced them to find better farmland
Djenne-Djeno
city on the niger river
remains discovered by archaeologists
THE OLDEST KNOWN CITY IN africa south of the sahara
what was djenne-djeno like at its height
it had some 5000 residents.
made houses of mud brick
raised rice
fished on niger river
Nok
west africas earliest known culture
where did the nok live and when?
in what is now nigeria from 500 BC to AD 200
where did their name come from
the cillage where the first artifacts from their culture were discovered
what were they also the first african people to do?
to smelt iron
when did their iron-making technology start
about 500 BC
what are one of the artisitic things the nok are known for
sculptures
where was the kingdom of aksum located?
south of kush on a rugged plateau on the red sea, in what is now ethiopia and eritrea
where does a legend trace the founding of the kingdom of aksum and the ethiopian dynasty?
to the son of king solomon of ancient israel and the queen of sheba
what is the aksum written language
Ge'ez
where did they get it from?
kushites
what else did kushite herders share with aksum?
skills of working stone and building dams and aqueducts
where was the first mention to aksum?
in a greek guidebook written around AD 100 called PERIPLUS OF THE ERYTHRAEAN SEA
who does it say to be the first king of aksum
Zoskales
what areas did aksum seize?
areas along the red sea and the blue nile in africa. they also crossed the red sea and took control of lands on the southwestern arabian peninsula
what made aksum an important trading center
aksum's location and expansion into surrounding areas
what gave it an influence over sea trade on the mediterranean sea and indian ocean
its miles of coastline and ports on the red sea
Adulis
aksums chieft sea port neear present-day Massawa
what items did adulis merchants trade?
salt, rhino horns, tortoise shells, ivory, emeralds and gold
ezana
ruler of aksum from 325-360. conquered part of the arabian peninsula that is now yemen, then conquered the kushites and burned meroe to the ground
what was the international language in aksum of the time?
greek
wwhat kind of god did the aksumites believe in?
one god called Mahrem and believed that their king was directly descended from him
what else did they believe in?
they were animists and worshoped teh spirits of nature and honored their dead ancesotrs.
what relgiion did aksum get shared?
christianity
what strengthened christian hold in aksum?
king ezanas conversion and devout practice of it
what dispute arose over the nature of christ
wheather he was soley divine or both divine and human
what did this lead to the split o of?
egypt and ethiopia on one hand and the church of Constantinople and Rome on the other
which did each believe?
egyptian and ethiopian churches believed in teh wholly divine nature f christ
what did they become?
the coptic church of egypt and the ethiopian orthodox church
what did aksumites use instead of mud bricks to construct stuff?
stone
stelae
huge stone pillars the aksumites built
what was aksum the only ancient african kingdom to have?
a written language
what was aksum the first state south of the sahara to do?
mint its own coins
how did the aksumites adapt to their rugged, hilly environment?
thety created a new method of agriculture, terrace farming
they dug canals to channel water from moutain streams into the fields
they built dams and cisterns to store water
terrace farming
terraces were constructed on moutain slopes to gelp the soil retain water and prevented its being washed downhiill in heavy rains
who did the kingdom decline under?
invaders who practiced the relgion called islam
why did muhammds family not initially invade aksums territories on the african coast of the red sea?
bc aksum had protected muhammads family and followers during his rise to power
causes of migration
1. environmental change
2. economic pressure
3. political and relgious persecution
4. technological development
environmental change example
shift in climate, depletion of natural resources, drought, earthquake
effect of environmetal change
redistribution of worlds population, blending of cultures
exmaple of economic pressure
increasing population, famine, unemploymeny
effect of economic pressure
shifts in population
exmaple of political and relgious persecution
slave trade, war, ethnic cleansing, repression
effect of political and religious persecution
dislocation and oppression of peoples, spread of ideas and religions
example of technological development
tools, agriculture, iron, smelting, communications, and transportation networks
effect of technological development
development of civilizations and empires
what is one way experts can trace the patterns of miggrations through history?
studying the spread of languages
Bantu-speaking peoples
the speakeers of many different languages that come from the parent tounge Proto-Bantu
made one of the greatest migrations in history
where did they live
in the savanna southof teh sahara in the area that is now southerastern nigeria
what did the bantu people do for a living?
they were farmers and nomadic herders who developed and passed along the skill of ironworking
what logical explanation did experts come up with to explain why the bantu-speaking people migrated?
they think that once these people developed agriculture, t they were able to produce more food than they could hunting and gathering. as a result, the population in west africa increased. bbc this enlarged population required more food, they planted more land and soon there wasnt enough to go around. they couldnt go north bc of the sahara coming toward them and dense population, so they moved south
BaMbuti and San
people who lived near the bantu speakers but still lived by hunting and gathering--got in fights w/ bantu but were drove off bc the bantu had iron weapons
what are two ways in which the early bantu-speaking peoples dealt with tthe difficulties of living in a new and strange place?
1. they cultivated new crops
2. they changged their domesticated animals
how did geography affect the direction in which the Bantu migrated
they wouldnt go east past the great rift valley so they had to go south