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70 Cards in this Set

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Plebian
the farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders who made up the bulk of the population and had little influence
Senators
served for life, made the laws
Gracci Brothers
among the first to attempt reform. Tiberius→ elected tribune in 133 b.c., called on the state to distribute land to poor farmers, Gaius→ elected tribune 10 years later, sought a wider range of reforms including the use of public funds to buy grain to feed the poor, agreed with senate→ threat
Hadrian
: emperor who codified Roman law, making it the same for all provinces, and he had soldiers build a wall across Britain to hold back attackers from the non- Roman north
Patrician
members of the landholding upper class
Consul
senators elected them from the patrician class, supervise the business of govt. and command the armies
Aqueduct
bridgelike stone structures that brought water form the hills into Roman cities
Legion
basic military unit made up of about 5,000 men
Roman Empire
led by Augustus, foundation of stable govt., put the jobless to work by putting them to work, not all successors were great rulers
Punic Wars
between 246 B.C and 146 B.C. when Rome faught 3 wars against Carthage, from Pinicius
Augustus
triumphant Octavian or Exalted one, declared him princeps~ first citizen, laid the foundation for a stable govt.
Mercenary
foreign soldiers serving for pay, to defend its borders
Diocletian
emperor who set out to restore order , divided the empire into 2 parts (kept control of the eastern part and appointed a co-emperor to rule the western provinces), had ABSOLUTE power, increased prestige of empire by having elaborate ceremonies , fixed prices to help prevent inflation
Pax Romana
“Roman Peace” 200- year span that begun with Augustus and ended with marcus Aurelius, during this time, Romans brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity from the Euphrates River to Britain in the west
Christianity
1 god, accepted the 10 commandments, preached obedience to the laws of Moses, Jesus= son of God, taught need for justice, morality, and service
Jesus
: born in Bethlehem, decendant of King of David, used short stories to spread his ideas, his mission= bring spiritual salvation and eternal life to anyone who would believe in him, crucified
Art & Literature
poetry, some used verse to make fun of Roman society, Philosophy from the Greeks, stressed realism, revealed an individuals character within sculptures, depicted scenes from Roman Literature in Mosaics ( pictures made from chips of colored stone or glass) GRANDEUR, immense palaces, stadiums, and temples, improved on columns and the arch, Pantheon (famous temple to all the Gods
The fall of Rome
• Military Causes- Germanic invasions→ hired mercenaries (foreign soldiers serving for pay, to defend it’s borders) they felt little loyalty to Rome
• Political Causes- government became more oppressive and authoritarian→ lost support of the people , corrupt officials, under attack, richer east did not help the west
• Economic Causes- taxes to support bureaucracy and military establishment, reliance on slave labor→ no new tech. , wealth→ middle class sank into povery, climatic changes, diseases
• Social Causes- decline in patriotism, discipline, devotion to duty (needed to replace citizen soldiers with mercenaries), upper class had no more leaders, devoted to luxury
Constantinople
vital center of the empire, located on the shores of Bosoporus, key trade routes* linking Europe and Asia, spectacle
Hagia Sophia
Church, it’s immense, arching dome improved on earlier Roman Buildings, Justinian’s greatest accomplishment
Autocrat
sole ruler with complete authority
Schism
permanent split between the Byzantine ( Eastern Greek Orthadox) and the Roman Catholic Church, pope and patriarch excommunicated each other
Collapse
crusaders burned and plundered the cities , Ottoman forces conquered, the time when the Byzantine empire was declining, struggles over succession, court intrigues, and constant wars
Justinian
empire reached it’s greatest size under him, determined to revive ancient Rome by recovering the provinces that had been overrun by invaders
Code of laws
Justinian’s code, collection of laws passed by Roman assemblies or decreed by Roman emperors, as well as the legal writing of the Roman Judges and a handbook for students
Czar
Russian word for Caesar
Steppe
open, treeless grassland
Mongol Conquest
Grandson of Genghiz Khan led armies into Russia and conquered, Golden Horde
Ivan the Great
brought much of Northern Russia under his rule, recovered Russian territories, tried to limit the power of boyars (great landholding nobles) ,double-headed eagle as symbol
Patriarch
highest church official in Constantinople
Boyar
great landholding noble
Yaroslav
“the wise”, ruled from 1019 to 1054, issued a Roman law to improve justice, translated greek works into his language, arranged marriages between his children and some of the royal families of Western Europe, Kiev enjoyed a golden age under his rule
Kiev
city, became the center of the Russian state
Ivan the Terrible
: grandson of Ivan the great, further centralized royal power, limited the privileges of the old boyar families and granted land to nobles in exchange for military or other service , introduced new laws that tied roman serfs to the land, trusted nobody, became subject to violent fits of rage, killed his own son, introduced Russia to a tradition of extreme religious power
Balkans
the south slavs descended into the Balkans and became the ancestors of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
Poland
missionaries brought Roman Catholicism to the West Slavs of Polan in the 900s, greatest age came under Queen Jadwiga, controlled the largest state in Europe stretching from Baltic to the Black Sea , increased the power of it’s nobles, they met in a diet (assembly) , declined because it no longer had a strong central govt.
Serbia
South Slavs setted the mountainous Balkans, accepted Orthodox Christianity , set up their own state, reached height under Stefan Dusan, encrouraged Byzantine culture, declined due to the advance of the Ottoman Turks
Jewish Settlements
Eastern Europe= refuge for many Jewish Settlers , western European communities launched attacks on Jewish Communities, FLED→ Poland where there was toleration
Boyar
great landholding noble
Yaroslav
“the wise”, ruled from 1019 to 1054, issued a Roman law to improve justice, translated greek works into his language, arranged marriages between his children and some of the royal families of Western Europe, Kiev enjoyed a golden age under his rule
Kiev
city, became the center of the Russian state
Ivan the Terrible
: grandson of Ivan the great, further centralized royal power, limited the privileges of the old boyar families and granted land to nobles in exchange for military or other service , introduced new laws that tied roman serfs to the land, trusted nobody, became subject to violent fits of rage, killed his own son, introduced Russia to a tradition of extreme religious power
Balkans
the south slavs descended into the Balkans and became the ancestors of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
Poland
missionaries brought Roman Catholicism to the West Slavs of Polan in the 900s, greatest age came under Queen Jadwiga, controlled the largest state in Europe stretching from Baltic to the Black Sea , increased the power of it’s nobles, they met in a diet (assembly) , declined because it no longer had a strong central govt.
Serbia
South Slavs setted the mountainous Balkans, accepted Orthodox Christianity , set up their own state, reached height under Stefan Dusan, encrouraged Byzantine culture, declined due to the advance of the Ottoman Turks
Jewish Settlements
Eastern Europe= refuge for many Jewish Settlers , western European communities launched attacks on Jewish Communities, FLED→ Poland where there was toleration
Mosque
House of Worship
Akbar
: chief leader of Mughal Empire, created a strong central govt., won the support of Hindu subjects through religious toleration, opended govt. jobs to Hindu’s of all castes, ended the tax on non- Muslims, used paid officials instead of hereditary office holders, modernized the economy, encouraged international trade, standardized weights and measures, introduced land reforms
Muhammad
heard voice of angel Gabriel calling him messenger of a God, Devoted life to spreading Islam
Al Khwarzimi
: greatest Muslim mathmmatician, wrote a book that became the standard mathematics textbook in Europe, developed a set of astronomical tables based on Greek and Indian discoveries
Sunni
felt the caliph should be chosen by the leaders of the muslim community, viewed him as a leader, not religious authority
Shiites
believed that only true successors to the Prophet were descendats of Muhammad’s daughter and son-in-law, Fatima and Ali, these descendants were divinely inspired
Hijira
a journey which Muhammad and his followers took when they left Mecca for Yathrib
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca
Five Pillars
1) faith 2) daily prayer 3) almsgiving 4) fasting on Ramadan 5) hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca
Safavid
dynasty that ruled a strong empire in Persia, engaged in warfare, Shiite Muslims, faded after death of Shah Abbahs, Abbas the Great= outstanding king- tolerated non-Muslims, capital= Isfahan- center of silk trade
Nanak
a holy Indian man who sought to blend Islamic and Hindu belieds, preached “the unity of God” , the brotherhood of man, the rejection of the caste, and the futility of idol worship teachings led to Sikhism
Qu’ran
sacred text of Islam, teaches that God is all powerful, contains sacred works for God as revealed for Muhammad, final authority of all matters, guide to life
russian/byzantine art
abstract and geometric patterns (no religious depictions) arabesque (intricate design composed of curved lines that suggest floral shapes and calligraphy (beautiful handwriting) , adapted domes and arches of Byzantine buildings
Minaret
the slender tower of the mosque
Millet
in the Ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims
Ottoman
empire, Turkish nomads, Sunni Muslims, expanded empire classes
1) men of the pen 2) men of the sword 3) men of recognition 4) men of husbandry, janizaries- tax on Christian sons to govt.
Tamerlane
Mongol leader who lead his armies into the Middle east, conquered Muslim and non-Muslim lands, victorious armies overran Persia and Mesopotamia
Abu Bakr
successor to Muhammad, faced crisis, then re-united the Arabs
Babur
calimed descent from Genghiz Khan and Tamerlane, military genius, poet, and author of fascinating book of memoirs
Sharia
: Islamic System of law which regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, govt., and other aspects of the Muslim community, helped unite many peoples that converted to Islam
Mughal
Islamic world for Muslim
Sulieman
: “the lawgiver”, the Ottoman empire enjoyed a golden age under his rule, modernized the army, conquered many new lands, extended Ottoman rule eastward to Mesopotamia, gained control of nearly all Hungary
Spread of Islam
Spread from West Africa to South East Asia
Accomplishments
• Learning boys and girls were provided with edu. , libraries
• Philosophy translated the works of Greek Scholars
• Mathematics Al Khwarizmi- book of Algebra, became standard text
• Astronomy astronomical tables , calculated circumference of the earth- only off by a few thousand feet
• Medicine hospitals w/ separate wards for women, physicians traveled to rural areas to provide health care to those who could not get it, Muhammad Al Razi (head physician at Baghdad’s chief hospital-wrote many books on medicine, Ibn Sina- * cannon on Medicine (huge encyclopedia of what the Greeks, Arabs, and himself had learned about the diagnosis and treatment of disease, developed new ways to treat cataracts